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16 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a paracrine pathway?
A hormone released from one cell that acts on distant target cells.
What is an autocrine pathway?
A hormone released that acts on the cell that secreted it.
How are polypeptide hormones synthesized?
Preprohormone(from ER)--cleaved----Prohormone---cleaved---Hormone(Golgi Apparatus)---Packaged into granules for release.
How are steroid hormones synthesized?
Cholesterol---Pregnenolone(mitochondria)---Side chain modifications(ER)--Various hormones.
How are amino acid hormones synthesized?
Tyrosine--hydroxlation---decarboxylation---Dopamine---further modification---Various hormones.
The fundamental mechanism of all hormone action is noncovalent binding to specific receptors. TRUE/FALSE
Where are polypeptide hormone receptors?
On the target cell.
Where are steroid hormone receptors?
In the target cell cytoplasm.
Amino acid hormone receptors are found on.....
Or in(thyroid hormone) the target cell.
What are G proteins?
Guanosine 5- triphosphate(GTP) binding proteins that couple hormone receptors on the cell surface to a second messenger system inside the cell.
What type of intrinsic property do G proteins have?
GTPase activity.
What type of G proteins are there?
Either stimulatory(Gs) or Inhibitory(Gi).
generally describe the mechanism of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) second messenger system.
1. Hormone binds G protein coupled receptor---2.Activates adenylate cyclase---3. Increases cAMP levels---4. Increases protein kinase A phosphorylation of proteins---5. Activation/inhibition of a metabolic process.
Describe the mechanism of the inositol triphosphate(IP3) second messenger system.
1. Hormone binds G protein coupled receptor---2. Activates phospholipase C---3. Frees diacylglycerol(DAG) + IP3 from membrane---4. Ca2+ release from ER---5. Activates protein kinase C phosphorylation of proteins---6. Activation/Inhibition of a metabolic process.
Describe the mechanism of the intracellular Ca2+ second messenger system.
1. Hormone binds G protein coupled receptor---2. Activates membrane Ca2+ channel or releases Ca2+ from ER---3. Increases intracellular Ca2+---4. Increases ca2+ calmodulin complex---5. Regulation of other enzyme activities.
describe the mechanism of the steroid and thyroid hormones.
1. Hormones crosses cell membrane---2. Binds to receptor in cytoplasm---3. Hormone receptor complex enters nucleus---4. Exposes DNA binding domain on receptor---5. Domain interacts with DNA to initiate transcription---6. Protein synthesized with subsequent physiologic actions.