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10 Cards in this Set

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What are the vasa recta/
These loops dip into the medullary pyramids alongside the loops of Henle. The descending vasa recta have a non-fenestrated endothelium that contains a facilitated transporter for urea, and the ascending vasa recta have a fenestrated endothelium, consistent with their function in conserving solute.
The volume of blood in the renal capillaries at any time is 30-40ml. TRUE/FALSE
Describe briefly the renal capsule.
It is thin, but tough. If the kidney becomes edematous, the capsule limits the swelling, and the tissue pressure rises. (renal interstitial pressure).
In a resting adult, the kidneys receive 1.2- 1.3 of blood per minute, or just under 25% of the cardiac output. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. One measures the amount of a given substance taken up per unit time and dividing this value by the areteriovenous difference for the substance across the kidney.
What is used as an example to measure renal plasma flow?
By infusing p- aminohippuric acid(PAH) and determining its urine and plasma concentrations.
When PAH is infused at low doses, 90% of the PAH in arterial blood is removed in a single circulation through the kidney. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. One calculates the renal plasma flow by dividing the amount of PAH in the urine by the plasma PAH level, ignoring the level in renal venous blood.
When the mean systemic arterial pressure is 100mm Hg, the glomerular capillary pressure is about 45mm/Hg. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. The pressure in the renal vein is about 4mm/Hg.
Glomerular capillary pressure is about 40% of systemic arterial pressure.
Is renal perfusion relatively constant?
Yes. However, renal autoregulation is present in denervated and in isolated, perfused kidneys, but is prevented by the administration of drugs that paralyze vascular smooth muscle.
How is renal autoregulation maintained in such conditions?
It is likely produced in part by a direct contractile response of the smooth muscle of the afferent arteriole to stretch. NO is probably involved.
What may play a role at low perfusion pressures?
Angiotensin 11 may play a role by constricting the efferent arterioles, maintaining glomerular filtration. Patients on Ace inhibitors may develop renal failure if they already have poor renal perfusion.