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137 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
sensory neuron
A neuron that detects changes in the external/internal environment and sends information about these changes to the CNS
motor neuron
A neuron located within the CNS that controls the contraction of a muscle or the secretion of gland
interneuron
A neuron located entirely within the CNS
CNS
brain and spinal cord
PNS
part of nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord, including nerves attached to brain and spinal cord
soma
cell body of a neuron, which contains the nucleus
dendrite
branched treelike structure attached to the soma of a neuron, receives info from terminal buttons of other neurons
synapse
junction between terminal button of one axon and the membrane of another neuron
axon
long, thin cylindrical structure that convey info from the soma of a neuron to its terminal buttons
multipolar neuron
neuron with one axon and many dendrites attached to its soma
bipolar neuron
neuron with one axon and one dendrite attached to its soma
unipolar neuron
neuron with one axon attached to its soma; the axon divides--one branch receiving sensory info and the other sending the info into the CNS
terminal button
bud at the end of a branch of an axon that forms synapses with another neuron and sends info to that neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical released by a terminal button, has excitatory/inhibitory effect on another neuron
membrane
structure consisting principally of lipid molecules that defines the outer boundaries of the cell and constitutes many of the cell's organelles
nucleus
structure in the central region of the cell containing the nucleolus and chromosomes
nucleolus
structure within the nucleus of the cell that produces the ribosomes
ribosome
cytoplasmic structure, made of protein, that serves as the site of production of proteins translated of mRNA
chromosome
strand of DNA with associated protiens found in the nucleus, carries genetic information
DNA
long, complex macromolecule with two interconnected helical strands
gene
functional unit of the chromosome, directs synthesis of one or more proteins
mRNA
macromolecule that delivers genetic info concerning the synthesis of a protein from a portion of a chromosome to a ribosome
enzyme
a molecule that controls a chemical reaction, combining two substances or breaking a substance into 2 parts
ncRNA
form of RNA that does not encode for protein, involved in splicing and cutting mRNA and modifying proteins that regulate gene expression
cytoplasm
viscous, semiliquid substance contained in the interior of a cell
mitochondrion
organelle responsible for extracting energy from nutrients
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, molecule that is important to cellular energy metabolism, its breakdown liberates energy
endoplasmic reticulum
parallel layers of membrane found in the cytoplasm of a cell
rough endoplasmic reticulum
contains ribosomes, involved in production of proteins secreted by cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
site of synthesis of lipids and provides channels for segregation of molecules involved in various cellular processes
Golgi apparatus
complex of parallel membranes in the cytoplasm that wraps the products of secretory cell
exocytosis
secretion of a substance by a cell through means of vesicles--process by which neurotransmitters secreted
lysosome
organelle surrounded by membrane, contains enzymes that break down waste products
cytoskeleton
formed of microtubules and other protein fibers linked to each other so they form a cohesive mass and give a cell its shape
microtubule
long strand of bundles of protein filaments arranged around a hollow core, part of the cytoskeleton and involved in transporting substances from place to place within the cell
axoplasmic transport
active process by which substances are propelled along microtubules that run the length of the axon
anterograde
in a direction along an axon from the cell body toward the terminal buttons
retrograde
in a direction along an axon from the terminal buttons toward the cell body
glia
supporting cells of the CNS
astrocyte
glial cell that provides support for neurons of the CNS, provides nutrients and other substances, and regulates the chemical composition of the extracellular fluid
phagocytosis
process by which cells engulf and digest other cells or debris caused by cellular degeneration
oligodendrocyte
a type of glial cell in the CNS that forms myelin sheaths
myelin sheath
a sheath that surrounds axons and insulates them, preventing messages from spreading between adjacent axons
node of Ranvier
a naked portion of a myelinated axon, between adjacent oligodendroganglia or Schwann cells
microglia
the smallest of glial cells, act as phagocytes and protect the brain from invading microorganisms
blood-brain barrier
semipermeable barrier between the blood and brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain's capillaries
area postrema
region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak, poisons can be detected there and can initiate vomiting
membrane potential
the electrical charge across a cell membrane--the difference in electrical potential inside and outside the cell
oscilloscope
laboratory instrument that is capable of displaying a graph of voltage as a function of time on the face of a cathode ray tube
resting potential
membrane potential of a neuron when membrane potential of a neuron when it is not being altered by excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials--approximately 70 mV in the giant squid axon
depolarization
reduction (toward zero) of the membrane potential of a cell from its normal resting potential
hyperpolarization
an increase in the membrane potential of a cell relative to the normal resting potential
action potential
brief electrical impulse that provides the basis for conduction of information along an axon
threshold of excitation
value of the membrane potential that must be reached to produce an axon potential
diffusion
movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
electrocyte
an aqueous solution of a material that ionizes eg. a soluble acid, base, or salt
ion
a charged molecule
cation
positively charged ion
anion
negatively charged ion
electrostatic pressure
attractive force between atomic particles charged with opposite signs or the repulsive force between atomic particles charged with the same sign
sodium-potassium transporter
protein found in the membrane of all cells that extrudes sodium ions and transports potassium ions into the cell
ion channel
a specialized protein molecule that permits specific ions to enter or leave cells
voltage-dependent ion channel
an ion channel that opens or closes according to the value of the membrane potential
all-or-none law
the principle that once an action potential is triggered in an axon, it is extended, without decrement, to the end of the fiber
rate law
the principle that variations in the intensity of a stimulus or other information being transmitted in an axon are represented by variations in the rate at which that axon fires
cable properties
the passive conduction of an electrical current, in decreasing amounts, down the length of an axon
saltatory conduction
conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons
postsynaptic potential
alterations in the membrane potential of a postsynaptic neuron produced by the liberation of a neurotransmitter at the synapse
ligand
chemical that binds with the binding site of a receptor
dendritic spine
small bud on the surface of a dendrite with which a terminal button of another neuron forms a synapse
presynaptic membrane
membrane of a terminal button that lies adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane and through which the neurotransmitter is released
postsynaptic membrane
cell membrane opposite the terminal button in a synapse--the membrane of a cell that receives a message
synaptic cleft
space between the presynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic membrane
synaptic vesicle
a small, hollow beadlike structure found in terminal buttons--contains molecules of a neurotransmitter
release zone
region of the interior of the presynaptic membrane of a synapse to which synaptic vesicles attach and release their neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft
postsynaptic receptor
receptor of a molecule in the postsynaptic membrane of a synapse that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter
neurotransmitter-dependent ion channel
an ion channel that opens when a molecule of a neurotransmitter binds with postsynaptic receptor
ionotropic receptor
a receptor that contains a binding site for a neurotransmitter and an ion channel that opens when a molecule of the neurotransmitter attaches to the binding site
metabotropic receptor
a receptor that contains a binding site for an NT--activates an enzyme that begins a series of events that opens an ion channel elsewhere in the membrane of the cell when a molecule of the NT attaches to the binding site
G protein
a protein coupled to a metabotropic receptor--conveys messages to other molecules when a ligand binds with and activates the receptor
second messenger
a chemical produced when a G protein activates an enzyme--carries a signal that results in the opening of the ion channel or causes other events to occur in the cell
EPSP
an excitatory depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane of a synapse caused by the liberation of an NT by the terminal button
IPSP
an inhibitory hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane of a synapse caused by the liberation of a neurotransmitter by the terminal button
reuptake
reentry of an NT just liberated by a terminal button back through its membrane, thus terminating the postsynaptic potential
enzymatic deactivation
the destruction of an NT by an enzyme after its release
ACh
acetylcholine, a NT found in the brain, spinal cord, and parts of the PNS responsible for muscular contraction
AChE
acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme that destroys acetylcholine soon after it is liberated by the terminal buttons, thus terminating the postsynaptic potential
neural integration
process by which inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials summate and control the rate of firing of a neuron
autoreceptor
receptor molecule located on a neuron that responds to the NT released by that neuron
presynaptic inhibition
the action of a presynaptic terminal button in an axoaxonic synapse--reduces the amount of NT released by the postsynaptic terminal button
presynaptic facilitation
the action of a presynaptic terminal button in an axoaxonic synapse, increases the amount of NT released by the postsynaptic terminal button
gap junction
a special junction between cells that permits direct communication by means of electrical coupling
neuromodulator
naturally secreted substance that acts like a neurotransmitter except that it is not restricted to the synaptic cleft but diffuses through the extracellular fluid
peptide
chain of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds
hormone
chemical substance released by an endocrine gland that has effects on target cells in other organs
endrocrine gland
gland that liberates its secretions into the extracellular around capillaries and hence into the bloodstream
target cell
type of cell directly affected by a hormone or other chemical signal
steroid
a chemical of low molecular weight, derived from cholesterol--steroid hormones affect their target cells by attaching to receptors found within the nucleus
neuraxis
imaginary line drawn through the center of the length of the CNS, from the bottom of the spinal cord to the front of the forebrain.
anterior
located near the head
posterior
located toward the tail
rostral
toward the front of the face
caudal
away from the front of the face
dorsal
toward the top of the head or back
ventral
toward the bottom of the skull or front surface of the body
lateral
toward the side of the body
medial
toward the middle of the body
ipsilateral
on the same side of the body
contralateral
on the opposite side of the body
cross section
slice taken at right angles to the neuraxis
frontal section
slice through the brain parallel to the forehead
horizontal section
slice through the brain parallel to the ground
saggital section
slice through the brain parallel to the neuraxis and perpendicular to the ground
midsaggital plane
plane through the neuraxis perpendicular to the ground--divides the brain into 2 symmetrical halves
meninges
three layers of tissue that encase the CNS--dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia mater
dura mater
outermost of the meninges, tough and flexible
arachnoid membrane
middle layer of the meninges, located between the dura mater and pia mater
pia mater
layer of the meninges that clings to the surface of the brain--thin and delicate
subarachnoid space
fluid-filled space that cushions brain, located between arachnoid membrane and the pia mater
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
clear fluid similar to blood plasma that fills the ventricular system of the brain and the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord
ventricle
hollow space in the brain, filled with CSF
lateral ventricle
one of the two ventricles located in the center of the telencephalon
third ventricle
ventricle located in the center diencephalon
cerebral aqueduct
narrow tube interconnecting the third and fourth ventricles of the brain, located in the center of the mesencephalon
fourth ventricle
ventricle located between the cerebellum and the dorsal pons, in the center of the mesencephalon
choroid plexus
highly vascular tissue the protrudes into the ventricles and produces CSF
arachnoid granulation
small projections of the arachnoid membrane through the dura mater into the superior sagittal sinus--CSF flows through them to be reabsorbed into the blood supply
superior saggital sinus
A venous sinus located in the midline just dorsal to the corpus callosum, between the two cerebral hemispheres
neural tube
a hollow tube closed at the rostral end that forms from ectodermal tissue early in embryonic development, serves as the origin of the CNS
ventricular zone
a layer of cells that line the inside of the neural tube, contains founder cells that divide and give rise to cells of the CNS
cerebral cortex
the outermost layer of grey matter of the cerebral hemispheres
radial glia
special glia with fibers that grow radially outward from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex--provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development
founder cells
cells of the ventricular zone that divide and give rise to the cells of the CNS
symmetrical division
division of a founder cell that gives rise to two identical founder cells, increases the size of the ventricular zone and therefore the brain that develops from it
asymmetrical division
division of a founder cell that gives rise to another founder cell and its neuron--neuron migrates away from the ventricular zone toward its final resting place in the brain
apoptosis
death of a cell caused by a chemical signal that activates a genetic mechanism in the cell
forebrain
most rostral of three major divisions of the brain, includes the telencephalon and the diencephalon