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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The renal sinus
is an internal cavity lined by the fibrous capsule and located in the area of the hilus.
The outermost layer of kidney tissue is the....
renal cortex
The innermost layer of kidney tissue is the....
renal medulla
Renal columns are...
bundles of tissue that lie between pyramids and extend from the renal cortex toward the renal sinus
The expanded end of the ureter forms the...
renal pelvis
Major calyces are...
large bundles of the renal pelvis
Bowmans capsule and the glomerulus make up the...
renal corpuscle
The region known as the macula densa is part of....
the distal convoluted tubule
The cells of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells form the....
juxtaglomerular apparatus
The expanded end of a nephron is the...
renal corpuscle
A glomerulus is...
a knot of capillaries that lies within the renal corpuscle
The portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle is the...
proximal convoluted tubule
The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is...
absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins and water
List the proper order of blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney.
1. renal artery
2. interlobar artery
3. arcuate artery
4. interlobular
5. afferent artery
6. glomerulus
7. efferent artery
8. peritubular capillary
The process of filtration occurs at the...
Bowmans capsule
List 4 constituents of normal urine.
1. H+ ions
2. urea
3. salts
4. creatinine
The most selective pores in the filtration membrane are located in the...
Substances larger than _____ are normally not allowed to pass through the filtration membrane.
Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can accomplish...
1. powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles
2. increase the glomerular filtration rate
3. result in the release of renin
The process of filtration is driven by...
blood hydroststic pressure
The ability to form a concentrated urine depends on the functions of...
the loop of Henle
List 4 characteristics of tubular reabsorption.
1. active transpoet
2. facilitated diffusion
3. cotransport
4. countertransport.
When the concentrations of glucose and amino acids are relatively high in the filtrate, they are reabsorbed by the process of...
facilitated diffusion
Magnesium iodide and iron ions are reabsorbed by the process of...
active transport
When the concentration of glucose and amino acids is relatively low in the filtrate, they are reabsorbed by the process of...
Chloride and hydrogen ions are moved across the tubular membrane by the process of...
The cells of the PCT normally reabsorb...
1. app. 60% of the volume of the filtrate produced in the renal corpuscle
2. cations such as sodium, calcium and magnesium
3. anions, such as bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and phosphate
4. virtually all the glucose and other nutrients under normal conditions
List 3 substances secreted by the DCT.
1. H+ and K+ ions
2. penicillin
3. creatinine
The role of countercurrent multiplication in the kidney is to...
produce a concentration gradient that will allow the nephron to produce a hypotonic filtrate
When the level of ADH increases...
less urine is produced
In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
urine with a lower specific gravity.
The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by_______epithelium.
The detrusor muscle...
comprises the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra
During the micturition reflex...
there is increased activity of the parasympathetic motor neurons that control the smooth muscle of the bladder.
The left kidney lies____ to the right kidney.
The condition called____ is especially dangerous because the ureters of renal blood vessels can become twisted or kinked during movement.
floating kidney
A typical adult kidney weighs about 150g. TRUE/FALSE
In normal healthy individuals____ml of blood flows through the kidneys each minute.
Proximal convoluted tubule is to________ as DCT is to_________
reabsorption of water ions and o secrectionrganic nutri of ions acids, drugs, and toxinsents:
The _____ is responsible for the delivery of urine to the minor calyx.
pappilary duct
The loop of Henle is made up of....
squamous and low cuboidal cells.
Glomerulonephritis occurs as a result of the bacterium...
Is Hydrogen reabsorbed in the kidney tubules?
No. Sodium/chloride/calcium and potassium are absorbed
Roughly 180 liters of fluid are produced by the glomeruli each day. TRUE/FALSE
________ is an inherited abnormality that effects the development and structure of kidney tubules.
Polycystic kidney disease
The layer of collagen fibers covering the outer surface of the entire kidney is the...
renal capsule
The majority of nephrons are located in the______ of the kidney.
nephrons located close to the medulla with loops of Henle that extend deep into the renal pyramids are called....
juxtaglomerular nephrons
The vasa recta is a capillary that surrounds the loop of Henle. TRUE/FALSE
The concentration at which all of the carriers for a given substance are saturated is the_________.
tubular maximum
The filtration pressure at the glomerulus is equal to.....
blood hydroststic pressure-capsular hydrostatic-blood osmotic pressure
The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute is the...
The process of________ involves a carrier protein that can transport a molecule along its concentration gradient without the expenditure of cellular energy.
facilitated diffusion
What is cotransport?
Two substances are moved across a cell membrane in the same direction without directly using cellular energy. One of the substances can be moved against a concentration gradient by thid process.
The area of the urinary bladder bounded by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the...
The________ test is often used to determine the GFR.
creatinine clearance
A typical characteristic of carrier mediated transport process is...
a variable distribution of carrier proteins from one portion of the cell surface to another
Measurement of the functions of a nephron reveals a glomerular pressure of 69mmHg, and a pressure in the capsular space of 15mmHg. Assuming that the plasma osmotic pressure is 30mmHg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net glomerular filtration pressure in this case?
24mm Hg
In the loop of Henle...
Na+ and Cl- ions are actively transported out of the ascending limb.
Urea is...
passively reabsorbed in the PCT
The mechanisms for maintaining the solute concentration gradient in the renal medulla require...
active transport of Na+ and Cl- ions from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Which has a gretaer value, the concentration of solute in the filtrate at the beginning of the loop of Henle, or the conc. of solute in the filtrate at the bottom of the descending limb of the loop of Henle?
The solute at the bottom of the loop.
The antidiuretic hormone...
increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water
If a freshly voided urine sample is very dark in color, what is true of this statement?
it will contain large amounts of urochrome
In response to high plasma osmolarity...
there is an increased permeability of the membrane of the renal collecting ducts to water
Frank has been fasting for several days. He notices a strong smell of ammonia in his urine. Why is this?
His fasting has resulted in his body utilizing proteins and fats as a source of energy, since CHO sources are not readily available. His metabolism is producing acidic products such as lactic acid and ketone bodies. The amount of these substances as well as mobilized fatty acids exceed their tubular maximum and the excess is excreted in the urine.
The presence of these substances in the plasma also shifts the pH to be lower, prompting the kidneys to secrete more H+ ions. The filtrate must be buffered to accept the extra ions. The body conserves base in the form of bicarbonate, so it produces ammonia, which can accept H+ ions in the filtrate to form ammonia and thus buffer the filtrate while conserving bicarbonate.
Carlos has advanced arteriosclerosis. Blood values indicate elevated levels od aldosterone and decreased levels of ADH. Why?
Arteriosclerosis contributes to hypertension, which could trigger a baroreceptor reflex that would lead to a decrease in the level of ADH in the blood. The stiffening of the vessels would decrease the blood flow to the kidneys, thus triggering the release of renin from the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
The renin would catalyze the conversion of angiotensinogin into angiotensin 1, and this would be converted into angiotensin 11 at the lungs. The angiotensin 11 would stimulate the secretion of aldosterone, which would increase sodium and water reabsorption, thus increasing blood volume.