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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
________ are lipoproteins that are formed in the intestine to carry lipids into circulation.
Lipoproteins that contain smaller amounts of triglycerides and relatively more phospholipid and cholesterol than VLDLs are called...
intermediate density lipoproteins(IDLs)
Lipoproteins that contain large amounts of cholesterol that is being transported in peripheral tissues are called...
low density lipoproteins
The nucleic acid that can be meatbolized to supply energy is...
A_________ contains all of the essential amino acids.
complete protein
Minerals are inorganic ions released through the dissociation of electrolytes. TRUE/FALSE
The unit of measurement used for the energy content of food is the________.
________is the direct transfer of heat energy from one object to another.
________ is the loss of heat energy to air.
_____________ is the most important mechanism for the generation of ATP.
oxidative phosphorylation
List 4 characteristics of oxidative phosphorylation.
1.removal of hydrogen ions from a substrate molecule by coenzymes
2. ionization of H+ ions
3. increasing the energy level of electrons passing through the electron transport chain
4. loss of electrons by O2 atoms
In oxidative phosphorylation energy for the synthesis of ATP is provided by...
the movement of H+ ions through channels in the respiratory enzymes
A drug that blocks the action of lipoprotein lipase would...
raise blood levels of VLDLs.
Catabolism of proteins is not a practical source of quick energy. State several resons why this so.
1. proteins are more difficult to break apart than lipids or carbohydrates.
2. the energy yield from protein is less than the yield from lipids.
3. one of the by-products of protein catabolism is a toxin.
4. extensive destruction of protein would threaten homeostasis at the cellular level and organismal levels.
A growing child is in a state of...
positive nitrogen balance
Impaired fat absorption in the intestine would interfere with the absorption of...
vit A.
List 4 characteristics of brown fat.
1. found in infants
2. functions in non-shivering thermogenesis
3. contains a rich vascular supply
4. is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.
In a disease that causes the destruction of a large number of cells and their nuclei, it would not be unusual to see an elevation in the blood levels of...
uric acid
After 7 days of starvation dieting, one would expect to see...
elevated levels of glucocorticoids
Catabolism within mitochondria provides the ATP needed to sustain cell functions. TRUE/FALSE
What is gout?
Blood levels of uric acid are higher than normal. Since uric acid is not as soluble as urea, some of the uric acid will precipitate out in joint capsules, causing local inflammation, pain and ultimately damage to the joint.
How is uric acid produced?
It is produced when purine nucleotides are degreaded.
Many people with gout cannot properly metabolize these nucleotides, they end up producing excessive amounts of uric acid. Dietary levels of purine nucleotides should be kept low.
What is deamination?
Deamination removes the nitrogen group from the amino acid, which is then excreted from the body(nitrogen loss)
Why is the TCA cycle called a cycle?
The TCA reaction sequence is a cycle because the 4 carbon starting compound(oxaloacetic acid) is regenerated at the end. Acetyl CoA and oxaloacetic acid enter the cycle, and CO2/NADH/ATP/FADH2 and oxaloacetic acid leave the cycle.
During starvation the body must use fat and protein reserves to supply the energy necessary to sustain life. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Some of the protein that is metabolized for energy is the gamma globulin fraction of the blood which is mostly composed of antibodies.
What is colestipol?
This drug bind bile salts in the intestine, forming complexes that cannot be absorbed.
It would to a decrease in plasma levels of cholesterol. Bile salts are necessary for the absorption of fats. If bile salts could not be absorbed, the absorption of fats(cholesterol/triglycerides) would decrease. There would as well be a decrease in fatty acids that could be used to synthesize new cholesterol.