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146 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Branch of biology dealing with the mechanisms by which living organisms function.
Studies the function of human body and studies how their functions are regulated in order to maintain homeostasis.
Human Physiology
State of physiology "gone wrong"
Organizational hierarchy of humans:
1) Cells

2) Tissues

3) Organs

4) Organ Systems

5) Organism
Basic unit of living organisms
Cells share common features such as __1__ and ___2___ and also have different functions resulted from ___3___
1) Division

2) Growth

3) Differentiation
Cell differentiation results in the formation of 4 categories of specialized cells:
1) Muscle cells

2) Nerve cells

3) Epithelial cells

4) Connective Tissue cells
Generate the mechanical activities that produce force and movement
muscle cells
initiate and conduct electrical signals
nerve cells
Selectively secrete and absorb ions and organic molecules.
epithelial cells
Connect, anchor, and support the structures of the body.
Connective tissue cells
10 organ systems of the body
1) Circulatory

2) Respiratory

3) Digestive

4) Urinary

5) Musculoskeletal

6) Immune

7) Nerve

8) Endocrine

9) Reproductive

10) Integumentary
This system transports blood throughout the body's tissues
circulatory system
This system exchanges oxygen from the air with carbon dioxide to and from the cells of the body by means of the blood and helps to regulate hydrogen ion concentration in extracellular fluid.
Respiratory system
This system digests and absorbs organic nutrients; absorbs minerals and water
Digestive system
This system regulates the plasma concentration of minerals and water excretes organic wastes.
Urinary system
This system supports and protects the body and allows for body movement. Produce blood cells. Serves as a reservoir of calcium.
Musculoskeletal system
This system defends the body against foreign invaders, returns interstitial fluid to the blood, and forms white blood cells.
Immune system
This system regulates and coordinates many activities of the body; detects changes in the internal and external environments; allows for states of consciousness, learning, and cognition.
Nervous system
This system regulates and coordinates many activities in the body.
Endocrine system
This system produces germ cells (eggs in females, sperm in males). In females, provides nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus, and nutrition for the infant after birth.
Reproductive system
This system protects body against injury, dehydration, and foreign invaders; helps regulate body temperature.
Integumentary system
_____% of adult body weight is water.
2/3 of body water is _______
A system in which a particular variable is not changing, but energy must be added continuously to maintain a constant condition
Steady State
The steady-state value of a particular variable, e.g. normal body temperature is 98.6F
Set Point (Operating Point)
A change in the variable being regulated brings about responses that tend to push the variable in the direction opposite to the original change.
Negative Feedback
Minimizes changes from the set point of the system, leading to stability. Common regulatory mechanism.
Negative Feedback
An initial disturbance in the system sets off a cascade of events that increases the disturbance even further.
Positive Feedback
An example of this is the process of child birth (uterine contraction and oxytocin secretion).
Positive Feedback
Positive feedback is ________ common in nature than negative feedback.
An adaptive response in the body in anticipation of a change in the environment.
Feedforward Regulation
________ happens before homeostasis has been disrupted and helps to minimize fluctuations and speed up the response.
Feedforward Regulation
Componenets of a reflex are:
1) arc receptor

2) afferent pathway

3) integrating center

4) efferent pathway

5) effector
Reflex pathways may be ______ or _______
Neural or Hormonal
Local homeostatic responses are also __________
Stimulus-Response Sequences
Occur only in the area of the stimulus, with neither nerves nor hormones involved.
Local Homeostatic Responses (Stimulus-Response Sequences)
Intracellular communication is primarily achieved by _______
chemical messengers
Reflex chemical messengers include __1__, __2__, and __3__
1) neurotransmitters

2) hormones

3) paracrine agents
Local homeostatic responses chemical messengers include __1__ and ___2__
1) paracrine agents

2) autocrine agents
Less common intercellular communication is through __1__ or ___2___
1) gap junctions

2) cell-bound messengers
chemical messengers that are secreted by nerve cells and act on adjacent nerve cells or effector cells
chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine cells or nerve, enter the blood, and act on distant effector cells
chemical messengers involved in local communication between cells -- exert its effects on cells near its secretion site
paracrine agent
local chemical messenger that acts on the same cell that secreted it
autocrine agent
Four major elements in the body
H, O, C, N
Seven essential mineral elements in the body
Ca, P, K, S, Na, Cl, Mg
13 essential trace elements include
Fe, I, Cu, Zn, Se, F
Four classes of organic molecules
1) Carbohydrates

2) Lipids

3) Proteins

4) Nucleic Acid
3 subclasses of carbohydrates
1) monosaccharide

2) disaccharide

3) polysaccharide
example of a monosaccharide
example of a disaccharide
sucrose (composed of glucose and fructose)
_____ are composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms, which form nonpolar bonds.
4 subclasses of lipids
1) Fatty acids

2) Triacyglycerols

3) Phospholipids

4) Steroids
If all of the bonds between the carbon and hydrogen atoms are single covalent bonds, the molecule is said to be a ______
saturated fatty acid
Molecules with one or more double bonds are _________
unsaturated fatty acids
Most of the body's lipids are __________, or "fat"
This is similar to a triacylglycerol except that it has two fatty acid chains linked to glycerol, with the sugar's third hydroxyl group attached to a phosphate group.
These are composed of 4 interconnected rings of carbon atoms bound to hydrogen atoms and each other
Examples of steroids are:
1) cholesterol

2) cortisol

3) estrogen

4) testosterone
Composed of the same set of 20 different amino acids
Proteins account for about __1__ of the organic material in the body ( __2__ of the body weight)
1) 50%

2) 17%
Nucleic acids account for ___ of the body weight
Nucleic acids are responsible for the __1__, __2__, __3__ of genetic information coded for proteins.
1) storage

2) expression

3) transmission
____ and ____ are nucleic acids
DNA __1__ and __2__ genetic information.
1) Stores

2) Transmits
DNA contains
1) phosphate

2) deoxyribose (sugar)

3) bases: adenine(A), guanine(G), cytosine(C), thymine(T)
RNA contains
1) phosphate

2) ribose (sugar)

3) bases: adenine(A), guanine(G), cytosine(C), uracil(U)
RNA is involved in ___1___ of genetic information and ___2___
1) transcription

2) translation of that information into protein
3 metabolic pathways to transfer the energy break-down of fuel molecules to cellular energy ATP:
1) glycolysis

2) Kreb Cycle

3) oxidative phosphorylation
____ energy released from catabolism is in the form of heat
_____ of energy released from catabolism is used for biological work such as muscle contraction, active transport, and molecular synthesis.
Energy liberated from organic nutrient catabolism
Energy expenditure
Heat + External Work Performed + Molecular Synthesis (energy stored)= ________
Total Energy Expenditure
Total energy expenditure per unit time, expressed as (kcal)/(unit time)
Metabolic Rate
Metabolic rate in the basal condition. (The subject is at mental and physical rest in a room at a comfortable temperature & has not eaten for at least 12 hours)
Basal Metabolic Rate
The factor that can most increase metabolic rate is ______
Altered Skeletal Muscle Activity
To maintain stable body weight, the total energy expenditure (metabolic rate) must equal the _______.
Total Energy Intake
Internal Heat Produced + External Work + Energy Stored = _________
Energy from Food Intake
Energy from food intake - (Internal Heat Produced + External Work) = _________
Energy Stored
Calories in Each Source:

Sugar -

Protein -

Fat -
Sugar - 4 kcal

Protein - 4 kcal

Fat - 9 kcal
_____ is functional, increased amount of fat results in increased health risk from a variety of diseases.
Increased a particular large amount of fat or extreme overweight
Body Mass Index (BMI)
(Weight in kg) / [(Height in meters)^2]

kg * 2.2 = lb

lb/2.2 = kg
BMI for:

Underweight -

Normal -

Overweight -

Obese -
Underweight: <18.5

Normal: 18.5- <25

Overweight: 25- <30

Obese: >30
The ability to increase basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Calorigenic Effect
Single most important determinant of BMR
Thyroid Hormone
Increases MR by stimulating glycogen and triglyceride catabolism
Increasing _______ is the most important factor that can INCREASE metabolic rate
skeletal muscle activity
Food intake is controlled by ______ and a variety of satiety factors.
Primary organ responsible for regulating metabolism is the ________.
______ is responsible for the sensations that cause us to seek food.
Hunger Center (Feeding Center)
When sufficient food or substrates have been received and leptin is high, then the ______ is stimulated and sends impulses that inhibit the feeding center.
Satiety Center
Factor secreted by adipose tissue cells
When insufficient food is present in the stomach and _____ levels are high, receptors in the hypothalamus initiate the sense of hunger.
The ability to maintain body temperature within very narrow limits despite wide fluctuations in ambient temperature, e.g. birds and mammals including humans
_____ is the absolute highest temperature for survival.
43 degrees C
Oral temp is about _______ than rectal
.5 degrees C less
In women, the temp in the 2nd half of the menstrual cycle is _____ than the 1st half.
Emit heat; the rate of emission is determined by temp of surface
direct contact
Aided by movement of air or water
Transform from liquid to gas; large amount of energy required for transformation
Heat production is altered by:
- Increasing muscle tone

- Shivering

- Voluntary Activity
Temperature acclimatization to heat is achieved by:
- An earlier onset of sweating

- an increased volume of sweat

- decreased sodium concentration of sweat
Desired Effect: decrease heat loss
Mechanism: stimulated by cold

1) vasoconstriction of skin vessels

2) reduction of surface area (curling up, etc)

3) Behavioral response (put on warmer clothes, raise thermostat setting, etc)
Desired Effect: increase heat production
Mechanism: stimulated by cold

1) increase muscle tone

2) shivering and increase voluntary activity

3) increase secretion of epinephrine (minimal in adults)

4) increase food appetite
Desired Effect: increase heat loss
Mechanism: stimulated by heat

1) vasodilation of skin vessels

2) sweating

3) behavioral response (put on cooler clothes, turn on fan, etc)
Desired Effect: decrease heat production
Mechanism: stimulated by heat

1) decrease muscle tone & voluntary activity

2) decrease secretion of epinephrine (minimal in adults)

3) decrease food appetite
The stimulus for fever is ______
Endogenous Pyrogens (Interleukin 1 and 6)
Extreme increases in body temperature can result in _____.
Heat Exhausation
Heat exhausation often is manifested as ______ or ______
collapse or fainting
Heat exhausation fainting is due to _______.
Hypotension from heat exhaustion is caused by:
1) reduction of plasma volume secondary to sweating

2) extreme dilation of skin blood vessels
High Blood Pressure
> 140/90 mmHg
High Blood Glucose
fasting > 110 mg/dL
High Triglycerides
> 150 mg/dL
Low HDL Cholesterol
Males: < 40 mg/dL

Females: < 50 mg/dL
Males: >40"

Females: >35"
Decrease glucose in blood
Increase glucose in blood
Two functions of the pancreas
1) Exocrine: digestive

2) Endocrine: hormonal
______ million children and adults in the US have diabetes
20.8 million
_____% of the US population has diabetes
____% of Faulkner county's population has diabetes
____% of the population in Arkansas have diabetes
____% of people in the delta region of Arkansas have diabetes
____ million people have been diagnosed with diabetes
14.6 million
____ million people have undiagnosed diabetes
6.2 million
Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG)

- Normal:

- Prediabetes:

- Diabetes:
Normal: <100 mg/dL

Prediabetes: 100-125 mg/dL

Diabetes: >125 mg/dL
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), 2 hr glucose level:

Normal, Prediabetes, and Diabetes
Normal: <140 mg/dL

Prediabetes: 140-199 mg/dL

Diabetes: >199 mg/dL
_____ million people have prediabetes
54 million
Results from the body's failure to produce insulin, the hormone that "unlocks" the cells of the body, allowing glucose to enter and fuel them.
Type 1 Diabetes
_______ of Americans have diagnosed type 1 diabetes
Treatment for type 1 diabetes
Symptoms of hypoglycemia
- shakiness

- dizziness

- sweating

- hunger

- headache

- seizure

- etc.
Symptoms of ketoacidosis
- dry mouth or thirst

- frequent urination

- high blood glucose levels

- high levels of ketones in urine

- dry or flushed skin
Results from insulin resistance ( a condition in which the body fails to properly use insulin), combined with relative insuline deficiency
Type 2 diabetes
Most Americans who are diagnosed with diabetes have _____
type 2 diabetes
A condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes
Treatment of type 2 diabetes
- lifestyle management: weight loss, diet and exercise

- medication with oral hypoglycemic drug, insulin

- prevent complications
Affects about 4% of all pregnant women - about 135,000 cases in the US each year.
Gestational Diabetes
1 out of every ___ healthcare dollars spent in the US is for diabetes
1 out of every 8
_____ is spent on treating diabetes
$37 billion
____ is spent on treating diabetic complications
$57 billion
Complications of diabetes:
- Heart and large vessel disease (stroke; PAD)

- Kidney failure (nephropathy)

- Nerve disease (neuropathy)

- Blindness (retinopathy)

- Amputations

- Pre-mature death