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76 Cards in this Set

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What are the two hormones created by the posterior pituitary?
Oxytocin and ADH
what are the 7 hormones created by the anterior pituitary?
TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH, MSH, GH, Prolactin
What are the 6 hormones released from the hypothalamus?
TRH
CRH
GnRH
GHRH
Somatostatin
Dopamine
What external stiimuli does the H-P unit integrate?
light, temp, emotion
what internal stimuli does the H-P unit integrate?
water metabolism
reproduction/growth
milk secretion/lactation
growth and secretion of thyroid, adrenal, reproductive glands
Where are hormones transferred in the posterior pituitary?
these are transfered down axons
where are hormones stored in posterior pituitary? how are they released?
these are stored in vesicles, and released in a neurocrine manner
Where are anterior pituitary hormones transferred?
these are sent down axons at the median eminence
In the anterior pituitary, what is the release pattern of hormones?
hormones are first released in a neurocrine fashion into local circulation (portal vein)-- (these encourage the release or inhibition of pituitary hormones)

then, then hormones reach the anterior pituitary, where they are released in an endocrine fashion
What hormones are created in the paraventricular nucleus?
oxytocin, adh
what hormones are created in the periventricular nucleus?
somatostatin
what hromones are made in the arcuate nucleus?
somatostatin
what hormones are made in the supraoptic nucleus?
ADH and oxytocin
What does somatostatin inhibit the release of?
GH and TSH
What is the anterior pituitary derived from?
primitive foregut
what is the posterior pituitary derived from?
outgrowth of the brain
what kind of tissue makes up the anterior pituitary?
endocrine tissues
what kind of tissues makes up the posterior pituitary
made of nervous tissue
What is the greatest population of cells in the anterior pituitary?
somatotroph
What are the four anterior pituitary hormones that stimulate other glands to grow and secrete hormones?
ACTH
TSH
FSH
LH
What are the two anterior pituitary hormones that stimulate non-endocrine tissue?
GH

prolactin
What does TSH do? what secretes it? alternate name?
this is secreted by the anterior pituitary.
also called thryotropin

this stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones from the gland, and helps it grow
What does ACTH do? what secretes it?
this is secreted by the anterior pituitary

this is adrenocorticotropic hormone- stimulates the release of cortisol and androgens from adrenal cortex
what does FSH do? what secretes it?
this is secreted by the anterior pituitary

in females- this stimulates growth of follicles for egg development

in men- FSH promotes sperm production
What does LH do? what secretes it?
this is secreted by the anterior pituitary

in females- causes ovulation, regulates estrogen/progesteron secretion

in males- promotes testo secretion
What does GH do? what secretes it?
this is secreted by the anterior pituitary

has a role in growth and fuel metabolism
What does prolactin do? what secretes it?
this is secreted by the anterior pituitary

this enhances breast development, and milk production

also induces production of LH receptors in testes
Where are ADH and Oxytocin produced?
In HYPOTHALAMIC neuronal cell bodies.
-supraoptic nucleus
- paraventricular nucleus
What types of hormones are ADH and Oxytocin?
these are both neruopeptides.

and both are nonapeptides (9AA's)
What is NP 1/2? which one binds what?
NP-1 is a carrier protein used to bind Oxytocin, prevents diffusion out of axons

NP-2 is a carrier protein used to bind ADH, prevents diffusion out of the axon
What is the role of ADH?
this regulates plasma osmolarity
When is ADH secreted?
this is secreted in response to an increase in plasma osmolarity
What is the method of action of ADH?
this is used to reabsorb water from distal tubule/collecting duct.

V2 receptors in the kidney- result in the insertion of aquaproin 2
How does ADH affect the vasculature?
this acts as a pressor- constracts arteriolar smooth muscle via V1 receptors
What things inhibit ADH secretion?
decrease in plasma osmolarity

volume expansion

HTN

alcohol
What are the 3 lesser effects of oxytocin?
released during orgasm

involved in embryonic cardiomyocyte differentiation

releases ANP from heart
What causes central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus?
this is a defect in ADH release- low levels of ADH.

caused by damage to ADH neurons (in posterior pituitary)
What causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus? what are the lab values like?
the posterior pituitary is normal, levels of ADH are high

but the collecting ducts are unresponsive to ADH stimulation (due to receptor defects, V2)
What are the causes of congenital hypopituiarism?
this is caused be a defect in pituitary release of GH, GnRH, TSH, ACTH
what is panhypopituitarism?
this is a deficiency of all anterior pituitary hormones
what are the first hormones to decrease in Pituitary insufficiency?
GH and gonadotropins
What are the physical symptoms of pituitary insufficiency?
adrenal cortex atrophies

sex cycle stops, secondary sex characteristics decrease

from thyroid loss- cold intolerance, dry skin, mental dullness, bradycarida
Where is GH made? what is its form?
in the somatotrophs of anterior pituitary.

this is made as a larger preprohormone, in a dominant active 22kDa active form.

stored in cytosolic granules
how does gender relate for GH secretion?
gh secretion is greater in premenopausal women.
when is GH secretion greatest in diurnal rhythm?
its is greatest during sleep onsent, then declines through out sleep time
What does GH-releasing hormone do? via what mechanism?
this acts on somatotrophs to induce transcription, and release of HGH.

it does this via G coupled receptors, with cAMP and PLC
What does Somatostatin do to GH release?
this inhibits GH release, by blocking the action of GH-RH to own receptor
What are the 3 main things the cause negative feed back on GH secretion?
GH-Rh

Somatomedins (IGFs)- increases somatostatin release (also suppresses response to GH-RH)

GH- causes hypothalamus to release somatostatin
What things stimulate the release of HGH?
Decreased plasma glucose

agrinine

sleep, TH, fasting, testo
What things inhibit HGH release?
somatostatin
increased blood sugar
obesity
being old
somatomedins (IGF)
GH
What things does HGH exert a direct effect on?
this has a direct effect on intermediary metabolism
what does HGH exert an indirect effect on?
growth (via IGFs (or somatomedins))
What are the Direct effects of HGH?
Lipolysis in adipose tissue

decreased glucose utilization in most tissues
What are HGH's effects on Lipids?
these are direct actions

GH is lipolytic, activates HSL-
also increase FA uptake


HGH is also ketogenic, (when insulin is low- as normal)
What are HGH's effects on Protein?
HGH is a protein anabolic hormone
increases amino acid uptake and incorporation into protein

muscle wasting can occur due to low GH secretion
What are HGH's effects on Carbohydrates? How does this effect insulin levels?
HGH- decreased glucose uptake by muscle/liver/adipocyte

AND increases gluconeogenesis

NET effect: increase in glucose, and rise in insulin
How does HGH affect insulin resistance?
this will INDUCE insulin resistance! by increasing blood sugar and insulin levels
How does GH affect PO4? Ca2+? ECF volume?
this increase PO4 uptake

increase Ca2+ absorption

and increases the ECF volume, due to angiotensin. also inhibits ANP
What carries out the indirect actions of HGH?
IGF-1/IGF-2
How is IGF transported?
it is transported by IGF-binding protein
What is the major regulator of IGF levels? what changes this regulators concentration?
IGF-BP1 is the major regulator

its production is increased by cortisol/glucagon

and its production is suppressed by insulin
How do IGF-BP1 levels, and consequently IGF levels change during fasting?
During fasting, with low insulin and high glucagon- IGF-BP1 synthesis is promoted.

This will BIND free IGF's LOWERING their concentration in the blood
Which IGF receptor is most similar to the insulin receptor?
IGF-1
What is the biggest IGF effect on growth?
this is an increase in linear growth, action on growth plates of long bones
What are the effects of IGF on chondrocytes
These increase Linear growth-
due to
amino acid uptake/protein synthesis
RNA/DNA synthesis
collagen/chondrotin
cell size and number
How do the gonads affect IGF-1 production?
gonadotropins stimulate IGF-1 production
In the Protein fed state! What happens to insulin/HGH/IGF levels?

what about protein synthesis and growth?
Increases In GH, IGF, and Insulin

GH and insulin modulate the IGF production together

GH facilitates insulin action to promote growth
How does insulin affect IGF-1 production?
this will increase IGF 1 produciton in the liver
In the carbohydrate fed state, what happens to insulin/HGH/IGF levels?

what about protein synthesis and growth?
Here GH goes down (due to hyperglycemia)
No change in IGF
Increase in insulin- this promotes storage of energy

No growth or protein synthesis
in the fasting state, what happens to Insulin/HGH/IGF levels?
Insulin secretion falls

Hypoglycemia induces HGH secretion!!

low IGF production

GH opposes the low insulin levels, to promote catabolism/glucose sparing

ALSO high Glucagon/Cortisol- so high IGF-BP1 levels, lowers IGF levels
What happens in GH deficiency before puberty?
this causes dwarfism

normal shaped bodies, with normal inteliegence.
ususally due to LOW GH and LOW IGF
What produces Laron dwarfs?
Normal GH levels,
but defect in expressing GH receptor

NO IGF! No IFG-BP
What produces african pigmys?
Normal GH levels

No rise in IGF with puberty.

partial GH receptor defect
What causes acromegaly?
Excess GH AFTER puberty

- increases bone, organ, hand, foot size

usually causes by tumor
What causes Gigantism?
excess GH before puberty

increases linear growth
What are the two clinical test for GH secretion?
Insulin tolerance test

Arginine administration