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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the corpus cavernosum?
Spongy tissue on the dorsoal side of the penis surrounded by fibrous inelastic membrane. Contains blood vessels, smooth muscle, etc.
What is the corpus spongiosum?
spongy tissue on the ventral side of the penis
What is required for an erection to occur?
- autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic and sympathetic)
-endothelial relaxing factors
-vascular smooth muscle of arteris and veins supplying penile tissue.
What protion of the ANS dominates during erection?
What effect can the CNS have on erection?
it can inhibit or stimulate erection
What triggers erection?
mechanical or visual stimulation
What neurotransmitter is involved in erection?
acetylcholine which releases nitrous oxide which causes relaxation of smooth muscle
Describe the process of an erection?
relaxation of smooth muscle allows blood to flow in and fill the spongy tissue , increased pressure on veins and arteries keeps blood from flowing out
What occurs in the smooth muscle when nitrous oxide is released?
arterioles relax and veins contract
What happens to the corpora cavernosa during an erection?
In lengthens and widens
What portion of the ANS mediates ejaculation?
the sympathetic nervous system
What occurs during ejaculation?
frequent strong contraction of the vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, urethra, and penis
What is the effect of prolactin in males?
Increased concentraion feeds back to the hypothalmus and turns of production of FSH and LH
What is erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction?
inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse
What are some psychogenic causes of erectile dysfunction?
anxiety, depression, mental illness, discomfort, etc
What are possible causes of erectile dysfunction?
neurogenic - damaged nerves
hormonal - decline in testosterone and increase in prolactin
vascular - venous insufficiency does not allow proper blood flow to achieve/maintain an erection
drug induced - antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihypertensives, etc.
What is BPH?
age related non-malignant enlargement of the prostate gland characterized by large discrete lesions around the urethra
What area of the urethra is affected by BPH?
periurethral regions
What portion of the urethra is affected by prostate cancer?
peripheral zones
What are the risk factors for BPH?
age, family history, race, ethnicity, dietary fat and meat consumption, hormonal factors, genetics
What race has the highest incidence of BPH?
African americans
What are the symptoms of BPH?
weak urinary stream
postvoid dribble
increased urinary frequency
How is BPH diagnosed?
digital rectal exam
urine flow studies
prostate-sepcific antigen test may be done to screen for cancer
What are the treatments of BPH?
self care
What race has the highest incidence of prostate cancer?
african americans
What are risk factors for prostate cancer?
age, family history, race, dietary fat and meat consumption, hormonal factors
What are some protective factors against prosate cancer?
-dietary substances (lycopene, selenium, vitamin E)
-chemoprevention using 5 alpha reductase inhibitor
What is the function of 5 alpha reductase inhibitor?
it inhibits conversion of testosterone to a more potent form
What type of cancer is prostate cancer?
It is most commonly and adenocarcinoma
Where does prostate cancer metasticize to?
lung and bone
Why is prostate cancer difficult to treat?
Early stage disease is often asymptomatic
What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?
low back pain, fractures indicative of bone metastasis, weight loss, anemia, and shortness of breath
How is prostate cancer diagnosed?
it can be screened for via prostate specific antigen and confirmed via biopsy
What is infertility?
inability to conceive a child after one year of unprotected intercourse
What are the types of infertility?
primary infertility - no prior conception
secondary infertility - infertility after one or more full term pregnancies
What percentage of infertility is male?
What percentage of infertility is female?
How is male fertility diagnosed?
medical history, physical, and lab tests
How is female infertility diagnosed?
menstrual history, lab tests, and pelvic exam
What is azoospermia?
A lack of sperm in the ejaculate
What is oligospermia?
problems with sperm production leading to low sperm count in the ejaculate
What factors can cause male infertility?
sperm disorders, immunologic disorders, hormones, genetics, structural and congenital abnormalities
What is testicular torsion?
It is a common pediatric scrotal disorder that occurs when tissue is not well attatched to the scrotal sack leading to twisting, which cuts of the blood supply to the testes. It can lead to infertility.
What is cryptorchidism?
An undescended testicle, often occurs with premature infants.
How is cryptorchidism treated?
Often the testicle spontaneously descend, however if this does not occur in the first three months surgery or hormone therapy are necessary
What is hypospadias?
urethra does not extend to the tip of the penis
How is hypospadias treated?
foreskn is used to close the opening, and the urethra is surgically extended to the tip.
What is varicocele?
vericose veins in the testes occuring between the ages of 15-35 which decrease sperm production
How is varicocele treated?
surgically or by relieving pressure on the veins
What is the third most common caner in women?
cervical cancer
What is the worst type of cervical cancer?
invasive cervical cancer
What is a more curable form of cervical carcinoma?
carcinoma in situ
What are the risk factors for cervical cancer?
HPV infection
early age at first intercourse
promiscuous male partner
history of STDs
True or false, cervical cancer is cosidered an STD?
How many types of HPV are there?
how many strains does the HPV vaccine protect against?
The 4 most common, accounts for 20% of all HPV
What is the precursor to cervical carcinoma in situ
lesions of atypical cells which progress gradually to cancer in situ
What is the 5 year survival of carcinoma in situ?
80-85%, 60% if it has spread to the reproductive system, 5% if it has spread outside the reproductive system
What is cervical intrepithelial neoplasia (CIN)?
abnormal growth detected by grading system which describes changes in cancer precursors
How can cervical cancer be detected early?
by pap smears - microscopically looks at cervical cells to detect changes in nucleus cytoplasm, variation in cell size and shape
What is CIN3?
worst grade of CIN still at cancer in situ
What is the treatment for cervical cancer if it has spread?
A full hysterectomy and chemotherapy
What is endometriosis?
functional endometrial tissue located outside the uterus
In what women is endometriosis more common?
women who postpone childbearing
What are the risk factors of endometriosis?
-eary age at first menarche
-regular periods with short cycles <27 days
-longer duration of periods >7 days
-heavy flow
-increased menstrual pain
-first degree relatives with the condition
What are the symptoms of endometriosis?
dysmenorrhea, dysparunia, and infertility - must have all three in combination to suggest endometriosis
How is endometriosis diagnosed?
What are the treatment goals for endometriosis?
pain relief, restoration of fertility, suppress endometrial tissue with hormone therapy, surgery
What are the common sites for endometrial growth?
ovary, rectum, uterus, and bladder
What are leiomyomas?
fibroids, benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin-non cancerous
What is the most common cause of pelvic tumors?
What are the symptoms of leiomyomas?
menorrhagia, anemia, urinary frequency, rectal pressure, and constipation, though more than 50% of cases are asymptomatic
How are leiomyomas treated
removal of fibroids surgically, after menopause a hysterectomy may be preformed in neccesary
What is pelvic inflammatory disease?
inflammation of the upper reproductive tract (uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries)
What is endometritis?
PID of the uterus
What is salpingitis?
PID of the fallopian tubes
What is oophoritis?
PID of ovaries
What are the risk factors of PID?
-Age 16-24
-nulliparity (children)
-multiple sexual partners
-previous history of PID
What are the symptoms of PID?
-lower abdominal pain
-purulent discharge (puss)
-adnexal tenderness (tenderness in accessory structures)
-very painful cervix
-symeptoms of infection(fever increased WBC's etc.)
How is PID treated?
What are the complications of PID?
-formation of scar tissue may cause blockage/fertility problems
-ectopic pregnancy
-chronic abdominal pain
What is hypomenorrhea?
little mentruation
What is oligomenorrhea?
infrequent mentruation
What is polymenorrhea?
frequent menstruation
What is menorrhagea?
excessive bleeding
What is amenorrhea?
lack of menstruation
What is primary amenorrhea?
no menstruation by age 16 or by age 14 if secondary sexual characteristics are also lacking
What is secondary amenorrhea?
has had mentruation in the past but not for 6 months or more?
What can lead to female infertility?
-anatomic abnormality
-genetic abnormality
-hypothalmic dysfunction
-pituitary dysfunction
-ovarian failure
-polycystic ovary syndrome
What can be done to manage infertility?
-workup of both partners
-rule out structural abnormality
-manage underlying disease
-treat infection
-use alternative reproductive technology
What are some examples of assisted reproductive technology?
-ovulatory-inducing drugs
-in-vitro fertilization
-blastocyst transfer
-intracytoplasmic sperm injection
-oocyte donation
-cytoplasmic transfer
-use of surrogate parent
Describe the steps of in vitro fertilization?
-ovaries super stimulated
-give FSH to induce production of multiple follicles
-monitor follicular development
-induce LH surge
-aspirate follicles, find ova
-inseminate ova in vitro
-return fertilized eggs to woman's uterus
What is intracytoplasmic sperm injection?
egg and sperm are harvested and a needle is used to inject a sperm directly into an ovum
What are the complications of cloning?
-shortened telomere length
-more tumor growth
-greater infection rates
-immunological issues
What is somatonuclear transfer?
tranfer of the nucleus of a body cell into the enucleated ovum as part of the cloning process