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38 Cards in this Set

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Skeletal muscle fiber(microscopic structure) What is the the outer cell membrane called?
Sarcolemma
Inside the muscle cell_____ has elongated protein strands k/a myofibrils
Fiber
Smooth ER is also known as
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
what does Smooth Er fill
Sooth ER fills the clefts/space between myofibrils.
What forms tubular invaginations
Sarcolemma T-tubules
Scarcolemma forms tubular invaginations which are T tubules which do what
propagate action protential to inside of cell.
Thin myofilament(actin) which are a chain of what
3000 actin molecules
thick myofilaments ( myosin)
which is 1500 golf club shaped proteins
properties of skeletal muscle
excitation,contraction, relaxation
excitation of skeletal muscle
1) generation of Action Potential by motor neuron
2) neuromuscular junction
where is the action potential carried into
transverse tubules
activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum causes release of what
calcium into cytoplasma from SR
Calcium binds to ____ and causes what movement
Troponin causes movement of tropomyosin
Movement of tropomyosin allows binding sites of what
actin to be exposed
Myosin can then bind to...
actin
Myosin head is "charged" and bends...
90 square when bound to actin
movement pulls actin towards what?
center of sarcomere(zlines)
After contraction, more _____ is required to pump Ca back into sarcoplasmic reticulum
ATP it is also needed fo re-establish resting membrane
Relaxation of skeletal muscle
Calcium is sequestered into sarcoplasmic reticulum(sr) Ion pumps in St use ATP to pump calcium from sarcoplam back into storage without ATp muscle cannot relax
Without what a muscle can't relax
ATP
ATP
ADP +phosphoric acid +engery for immediate use in conctraction
Cp
Creatine + Phosphoric+ engery flow (for synthesis of ATP from ADP)
Glucose(glycogen or blood)
lactic acid + engery for resynthesis of CP from creative and phosphoric acid
Lactic acid + oxygen
Water + carbon dioxide+ engery for synthesis of ATP and CP
Smooth Muscle
Involuntary, mostly single unitstucture
Smooth Muscle Action potentials
Transmitted across cells via gap junction work as single unit. Multiunit eye, pilomotor fibers of hair
Structure of smooth muscle
Central nucleus no orderly arrangement of actin and myosin no striations
Smooth Muscle of action potentials
not always required for contraction
Stimulation of smooth muscle
Ligand binding, mechanical stretch, slow wave electrical activity hormones, environment
Smooth Muscle contraction stimulation
Calcium has different role upon stimulation release from Sr also enters form outside the cell via calcium channels, inside cell, calcium binds to calmodulin.
cardiac muscle are what type of of disks
Intercalated disks at ends of muscle cells allow transmission of electrical activity
Cardiac muscle acts as a
syncytium
Action potentials occur spontaneously within pacemaker cells which are regulated by...
autonomic nervous system
calcium from SR and via membrane channels but,
calcium binds similar to skeletal muscle
Conditions of toxins
Tetanus
Neurotoxin from clostridium tetant, excitatory impulses aren't regulated, produces continuous tonic muscle spasms, lockjaw- masseter stronger
Conditions and toxins
Botulism
Botulinum toxin produce by clostridium botulinum, Acts on neuromuscular junction, toxins prevents vesicles contaning ACh at the synapse from release, flacci paralsis due to lack of muscle contraction
Conditions and toxins of rigor and rigor mortis what happens
When most ATP is depleted - myosin heads can't separate from actin + calcium can't be sequested back into SR by calcium pump= no relaxation
Conditions and toxins fatigue
Function of muscle cell and not due to neutons. Decrease in ATP Availability. Increase in IC Conc. of metabolites(latic acid) 2 metabolic pathways to produce ATP Glycolytic, Oxidative