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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central Nervous System CNS
Composed of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System PNS
Composed of the sensory division and the motor division
Sensory Division
AKA afferent division. Responsible for informing the central nervous system what is going on within and outside the body.
Motor Division
AKA efferent division. Responsible for sending information from teh central nervous system to the body
The structural unit of the nervous system made up of the soma, dendrite and axon
Axon Hillock
Cone-shaped region of the cell body.
Neruon receivers
Neuron transmitter
Axon terminals
The tips of the end branches are dilated into tiny bulbs. AKA synaptic knobs.
Chemicals stored in synaptic vesicles (sacs)used for communication b/t a neuron and another cell.
Nerve Impulse
An electrical charge. the signal tha tpasses from one neuron to the next and finally to and end organ or back to the central nervous system.
Resting Membrane Potential
RMP -70mV
The inside of a cell becomes positive and the potential difference across the membrane decreases.
If the charge difference increases to an even more negative number the membranes become polarized
Action Potential
Rapid and substantial depolarization. RMP goes from -70mV to +30mV and back to -70mV.
The minimum depolarization required to produce an action potential.
Myelin Sheath
Formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. (fatty substance)
Nodes of Ranvier
Uninsulated gaps on an myelinated axon.
Saltatory conduction
Faster type of condction due to sheath.
The site of impulse transmission/communication from one neuron to another
Neuromuscular Junction
A motor neuron communicates with a muscle fiber at this site.
minimum depolarization required to trigger an action potential.
Absolute Refractory Period
A point at which sodium gates are open and an axon cannot respond.
Relative Refractory Period
Point at which sodium gates are closed, potassium gates are opened and an axon will respond but only to a significantly greater stimulus.
Neurotransmitter that innervate skeletal muscle for most parasympathetic neruons.
Neurotransitter for most sympathetic neurons.
The cumulative effect of all individual graded potentials as processed by the axon hillock
EPSP Excitatory postysynaptic potential
An excitatory impulse that causes a hyperpolarization, or depolarization.
IPSP Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
An inhibitory impulse that causes a hyperpolarization. These complexes protect muslc-tendon-bone complexes under normal circumstances.
Neurons grouped in bundles in the CNS (brain or spinal cord).
Neurons grouped in bundles in the peripheral nervous system.
What 4 parts are the brain comprised of?
Brain Stem
What makes up the Central Nervous System?
The brain and the spinal cord.
What allows the two hemispheres in the cerebrum to communicate?
A bundle of fibers (tracts) called the corpus collosum.
Function of the Frontal lobe of the cerebrum
General intellect and motor control.
Function of the Temporal lobe of the cerebrum
Auditory input and its interpretation.
Fucntion of the Parietal lobe of the cerebrum
General sensory input and its interpretation.
Function of the Occipital lobe of the cerebrum
Visual input and its interpretation.
What makes up the diencephalon?
The thalamus and the hypothalamus.
What is the function of the thalamus, what is its importance and where is it found?
All sensory input (except smell) enters here and is relayed to the appropriate part of the cortex. Very important for motor control. It is found in the diencephalon.
What is the function of the hypothalamus and where is it?
Maintains homeostasis and it is found directly below the thalamus in the diencephalon.
Name specific functions of the hypothalamus.
Controls blood pressure, heart rate and contractility, respiration and digestion; body temp; fluid balance; neuroendocrine control; emotions; thirst; food intake; and sleep-wake cycles
Define the reticular formation and identify what it does.
It is a collection of specialized neurons in the brain stem. They help coordinate skeletal muscle function, maintain muscle tone, control cv and respiratory systems and deterine our state of consciousness (sleep and arousal)
Spinal cord
Composed of tracts of nerve fibers that allow two way conductions of nerve impulses.