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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
sound travels in compression waves through a particular medium
vibration of medium

a. solid-----> liquid-----> gas
fastest slowest
sound as a wave

series of high pressure areas
“compressions”
sound as a wave

series of low pressure areas
“rarefactions”
graphic representation of areas of compression and rarefaction of a sound wave
sine wave
the distance between 2 areas of compression for a given sound wave
wavelength
the number of waves that pass a given point in one second (1/s = 1 Hertz)
frequency
high pitched tones
short wavelength/high frequency
long wavelength/low frequency
low pitched tones
20Hz - 20,000 Hz (2-3 Hz distinction)
human frequency range
intensity of energy in a given wave of sound; signified by height of sine wave
amplitude
subjective interpretation of the intensity of a sound
loudness
logarithmic scale to measure the intensity of sound waves
decibel
0 dB threshold for audibility
10 dB l0 X 0 dB
20 dB 100 X 0 dB
30 dB 1000 X 0 dB
40 dB 10,000 X 0 dB
Energy in the Sound Wave
barely audible
2 X 0 dB
4 X 0 dB
8 X 0 dB
16 X 0 dB
Perceived Loudness
human amplitude range
0 dB - 120 dB (130 dB = pain level)
air -->
external auditory canal -->
tympanic membrane (ear drum) -->
ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes.) -->
oval window of cochlea -->
vibration of cochlear fluid -->
basilar membrane of cochlea
Transmission of Sound to the Inner Ear
Resonance of Basilar Membrane
1.vibration of oval window -> perilymph vibration
2.for 20 - 20,000 Hz only, vibration of vestibular membrane
3.vestibular membrane vibration -> endolymph vibration
4.endolymph vibration -> vibration of basilar membrane
5.basilar membrane “fibers” of different length, thickness, and tension like strings of a
piano
different fibers of basilar membrane have different “natural frequencies”
resonance
vibrate only at SPECIFIC frequency (pitch)
SPECIFIC parts of basilar membrane
rest on the basilar membrane, contain "stereocilia" which project into
the "tectorial membrane" just above
cochlear hair cells
a. basilar m. vibration -> hair cell vibration
b. hair cell vibration -> opening/closing channels
c. depolarization/hyperpolar -> cochlear nerve
d. cochlear nerve impulses -> to brain
Excitation of Hairs Cells of Organ of Corti
cochlear nerve(vestibulocochlear VIII)->
spiral ganglion -->
cochlear nuclei (medulla) -->
superior olivary nucleus -->
lateral lemniscal tract -->
inferior colliculus -->
medial geniculate body of thalamus -->
auditory cortex (superior temporal lobe)
Anatomical Pathway to the Brain
Processing of Auditory Information

location of vibration on the basilar membrane
Perceiving Pitch (Frequency)
Processing of Auditory Information

more hair cells of the basilar membrane (with same pitch) are activated
Perceiving Differences in Loudness (Intensity)
Processing of Auditory Information
localizing Source of Sound

first point where sound from both ears come together
superior olivary nucleus
Processing of Auditory Information
localizing Source of Sound

the amplitude of sound waves hitting the different ears
relative intensity
Processing of Auditory Information
localizing Source of Sound

the difference in timing in which a sound reaches both ears
relative timing
disruption in sound vibrations to basilar membrane (ext & mid ear)
conduction deafness
conduction deafness

causes
1. blocked auditory canal (wax, fluid)
2. perforated tympanic membrane(eardrum)
3. otitis media - middle ear infection / inflammation
4. otosclerosis - hardening of the earbone joints
disruption anywhere in pathway from hair cells to the auditory cortex
sensorineural deafness
sensorineural deafness

causes
1. loss of hair cells (explosion, chronic loud noise)
2. damage to vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
3. damage to nuclei/tracts to the cortex
chronic perception of clicking or ringing
tinnitus
tinnitus

causes
1. sudden blow to the tympanic membrane
2. gradual deterioration of afferents in cochlear nerve
effects both hearing and balance; results in tinnitus, vertigo, and
interspersed nausea and vomiting
Menierre's Syndrome
1. may be too much endolymph beneath basilar membrane
2. symptoms can be treated somewhat with drugs
3. endolymph may be drained periodically
4. hearing loss is progressive
Menierre's Syndrome

causes
Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule

bony cavity of the inner ear between the cochlea and the semicircular canals
vestibule
Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule

smaller sacs housed within the vestibule
saccule and utricle
Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule

patch of "supporting cells" and "hair cells" along the utricles and saccules
maculae
Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule

like hair cells of basilar membrane, respond when bent
maculae hair cells
Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule

jelly-like sheet that abuts the "stereocilia" of the hair cells
otolithic membrane
Linear Movement: The Maculae of the Vestibule

"ear stones" that rest on top of the otolithic membrane
otoliths
maculae of UTRICLE is in the horizontal plane; hairs bend when motion is FORWARD/BACKWARD
horizontal acceleration
maculae of SACCULE is in the vertical plane; hairs bend when motion is UP/DOWN
vertical acceleration
three bony "hula-hoop" extensions of vestibule in three different planes
semicircular canals
like maculae, contain hair cells that respond to flow of endolymph in canals
crista ampullaris
like otolith membrane, gelatinous "cap" into which hair cells project
cupula
movement of eyes to remain fixed on object when on "merry-go-round"
vestibular nystagmus
false feeling of gravity or motion
vertigo
activated hair cells of crista ampularis ->
afferent axon fibers (vestibulocochlear nerve) ->
vestibular nuclear complex OR cerebellum
Equilibrium Pathway: Coordinating Inputs in Brain
also receive input from eyes and somatic proprioceptors; coordinates
information to help control motion of eyes, neck, limbs
vestibular nuclei
also receives input from eyes and somatic proprioceptors; coordinates
information to help regulate head position, posture, and balance
cerebellum
Problems with Equilibrium
1.dizziness, nausea, imbalance, vomiting

2.motion sickness
conflict between visual/somatic inputs and action of the vestibular apparatus
motion sickness
block inputs from vestibular apparatus to the brain
Bonine, Dramamine, Scopolamine
change in angular (rotational) acceleration
movement of the head in non-linear (circular or angular) direction is monitored by three canals