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76 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Where the cell's DNA is stored?
Nucleus
Which of the following are NOT in the nucleus of a cell?
a. mitochondria
b. chromosomes
c. nucleus
d. nucleoplasm
The location on an enzyme where substrate binds is called the__________?
active site
The isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase found in skeletal muscle?
M-type
Splits glucose into two pyruvate molecules?
Glycolysis
A phospholipid molecule has a head and two tails. The tails are found?
In the interior of the membrane.
Uses a membrane bound system that contains cytochromes to produce ATP?
Electron transport chain
Endurance training increases the amount of LDH?
Inside the mitochondria
Produces NADH and Co2 and converts pyruvate to Acetyl-CoA?
Krebs Cycle
The common energy "currency" in cells?
ATP
The end product of glycolysis is?
Pyruvate
The 3 carbon backbone of a triglyceride is called?
Glycerol
The phosphorylation of ATP ehich occurs during glycolysis and Krebs Cycle is called?
Substrate-level phophorylation
The phophorylation of ATP that occurs during glycolysis and Krebs cycle is called_________.
substrate-level phophorylation.
The number of ATP formed the metabolism of glycerol?
19
During cellular respiration, oxygen is reduced to form______.
water
This organelle has it's own DNA and increases in number with endurance training?
Mitochondria
The "cycle" in which lactate produced by skeletal muscle is shipped to the liver for gluconeogenesis?
Cori Cycle
The nonoxidative energy systems are used predominantly in the first_______minutes of exercise?
2
Vesicles released from the rough E.R. are most likley on their way to the?
Golgi apparatus
Th amount of energy that is required to make a reaction "go?"
Activation energy
Which of the following is capable of being reduced by either glycolysis or the Krebs cycle? a. FADH2 b. ADP c. pyruvate d. NAD+
NAD+
The face of the Golgi apparatus that faces the endoplasmic reticulum is the?
cis face
When NADH donates electrons to become NAD+ it has been?
oxidized
The partial or complete loss of electrons is called?
Oxidation
How many carbon atoms present in a molecule of lactate?
3
The number of ATP formed from the metabolism of one molecule of glycerol?
19
How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of Acetyl-CoA?
2
An abbreviation for the compound which must combine with Acetyl-CoA to start the Krebs Cycle?
OAA
What is the difference between an acid and a base?
An acid releases OH ions in solution, while a base accepts H+ ions.
The number of ATP's formed from one FADH2 molecule?
2
The ATP-PCr and glyclytic energy systems are used predominantly in the first______ minutes of exercies?
2
In an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, the molecule that loses electrons is said to be________?
oxidized
In the chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP, what is the most direct source of energy used to convert ADP+Pi to ATP?
Energy released as electrons flow through the electron transport system.
The partial or complete gain of electrons is called?
reduction
How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of pyruvate?
3
This pathway occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria?
Krebs Cycle
How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of carbon dioxide?
1
Lipids do not mix with water and are said to be_________?
Hydrophobic
The function of bicarbonate in the blood is?
To remove lactate from the blood.
An enzyme which converts pyruvate into lactate?
Lactate dehydrogenase
How many carbon atoms are present in a molecule of glucose?
6
This organelle contains digestive enzymes and acts to destrot intracellular debris?
Lysosome
The normal pH of human blood is?
7.4
The isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase found in skeltal muscle?
M-Type
If a cell metabolizes 10 molecules of glucose for energy production and no oxygen is availble, what is the maximum number of ATP's formed?
20
In the reaction shown below, which of the following is an oxidized product?
6CO2
The most immediate source for replenishing ATP within a cell?
Creatine phosphate
The transformation of pyruvate into lactate is called________.
fermentation
The dot over the V in VO2 indicates it's oxygen consumption _________?
per minute
An endergonic reaction has a Delta G that is?
Positive
When the name of a substance ends in -ase. the substance is most likely?
Enzyme
Produces ATP, NADH, and CO2?
Transistion Reaction
An amino acid which can be made into a fat is called?
ketogenic
Enzymes are composed of______?
protein
All carbon from a glucose molecule becomes_________after metabolism.
carbon dioxide
If a cell metabolizes 5 molecules of glucose for energy production and no oxygen is availble, what is the maximum number of ATP's formed?
10
Ribosomes associated with E.R. are called?
Bound
The site where proteins are packaged and labeled in a cell?
Golgi apparatus
Most of the ATP made during cellular respiration is made by?
Oxidative phosphorylation
How many ATP can be produced during the oxidative breakdown of glucose?
34
A metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytosol?
glycolysis and fermentation
This tryglyceride component is converted into Acetyl-CoA during beta oxidation?
free fatty acid
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain in the mitochondris?
Oxygen
Define enzyme? Discuss how enzymes function to speed up biochemical reactions?
An enzyme is a catalyst of protein and because it is a catalyst it is able to speed up the biochemical reaction without actually being consumed by the reation.
Catabolism of proteins. lipids and carbohydrates can result in a 2-carbon molecule called______which enters the Krebs Cycle?
Acetyl-CoA
When NAD+ accepts electrons to become NADH it has been______?
reduced
The breakdown of glucose is a(n)________ reaction?
exergonic and catabolic
The amount of energy that is availble to do work in a biological reaction is?
Free energy
During cellular respiration, oxygen is reduced to form?
water
The number of ATP's formed fromone NADH molecule?
3
Regenerates NAD+ as pyruvate is converted to lactate or ethanol?
Fermentation
An amino acid which can be made into glucose is called________?
Glucogenic
The point of VO2 MAX oxygen consumption_________even as workload increases?
stays the same
This organelle is responsible for detoxifying drugs and poisons?
Smooth E.R.
An enzyme whichconverts pyruvate into lactate?
Lactate dehydrogenase