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25 Cards in this Set

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What are the steps for a reflex? (6 steps)
1. Reflex is given
2. Receptor potential
3. Action potential
4. AP transmission
5. Synaptic transmisson
6. Muscle activity
The rest potential (Vmembrane) is at _____mV
-70 mV
Voutside = ?
Vmembrane = V_____ - V_____
Voutside = 0
Vmembrane = Vinside - Voutside
What is depolarisation?
When the potential becomes less negative
What is hyperpolarisation?
When the potential becomes more negative
Can charged particles pass the membrane?
No
(e.g. Na, Cl, etc.)
Can small molecules and lipophilic particles pass the membrane?
Yes
(e.g. O2, CO2, NH3 etc.)
What are the different possibilities of transport?
Energy difference
Carrier
Pump
What does the concentration gradient do?
It enables the build-up of a potential
What do the pumps do?
They regulate the concentration gradient
What is the Nernst potential?
ENernst = -(RT/zF)ln([Ci]/[C0])
Where: R = universal gas constant
T = absolute temperature
F = Faraday's constant
z = charge of ion
Ions can only pass the membrane through _______
Ion channels
What are the driving forces for ion channels?
Concentration difference and potential difference
What are the resting potentials for:
1. Ca
2. Na
3. Cl
4. K
ECa = +120 mV
ENa = + 65 mV
ECl = -70 mV
Ek = -90 mV
What are the ratios of permeability for PK: PNa: PCl?
1:0.04:0.45
Vm in the rest state is determined mostly by the permeability of ___
K
What is Ohm's Law?
What is Kirchoff's Law?
Ohm: I = V/R
Kirchoff = I1+I2 = I3+I4
The conductivity (G) of the membrane is ________ to the number of ion channels
Proportionate
In rest, ions can only pass the membrane through _______________
"Leak" channels, these are always open
The ____________ of an ion determines the contribution to the rest potential, VR
Relative conductance
What keeps the concentration gradient going?
Ion pumps
Na and K are exchanged through a _________
carrier-mediated transport system
Active transports costs energy in the form of _____
ATP
Per cycle, _ K ions are transported ______ and _Na ions are transported ______ the membrane. Therefore, there is ____ charge transport.
2, inside
3, outside
net
What is the effect of ouabaine?
It selectively inhibits the Na-K pump