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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Darwin attributed the diversity of life to _________, not _____________.
natural causes, not supernatural creation
Darwin published__________on Nov, 24, ,____.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Two major points in the Origin are
Natural selection-
-today's organisms descended from ancestral species
-the mechanism for evolutionary change in populations
Darwin was recommended to be the conversation companion to ____________ on the ________________.
RObert FitzRoy
HMS Beagle
Darwin explored...while on the Beagle.
Brazilian jungles, Argentine pampas, desolate Tierra del Fuego, the Andes, and the Galapagos Islands
Most of the animals on the Galapagos islands
lived nowhere else but resembled species living on the South American mainland
Darwin reasoned that islands were cultivated by _____ that then ________.
mainland plants and animals
In Galapagos finches, clear difference in ____________.
Alfred Wallace
naturalist who worked in the East Indies, sent Darwin a manuscript w/ a theory of natural selection
Origin of Species published
Why is the idea of evolution by natural selection attributed to Darwin?
He came up with the ideas earlier and had extensive research and evidence- moreso than Wallace.
Darwinism contains_________ as the explanation for similarity and diversity of life and natural selection as the mechanism of __________.
evolution; adaptation
Explain evidence of evolution of insecticide- resistant insects.
Insects are sprayed with a new insecticide; 99% die. The one % that live pass on that trait and therefore create a new entirely resistance generation.
It is ___________, not __________that evolve.
populations, not individuals
Natural selection occurs through an interaction between ________and _________of populations of organisms.
environment and variability of organisms
Homology is
similarity in trait(s) due to common ancestry
Example: Forelimbs of human, cats, whales, and bats; different functions, but have same skeletal elements. All diverged from ancestral tetrapod forelimb.
homologous structures are
Similar structures with a common ancestry
4 major problems for animals' physiological systems
1. how to exract 02 from air
2. how to move
3. how to nourish themselves
4. how to excrete waste
Bioenergetics is
how to obtain, process, and utilize the energy needed to run the systems involved
evolutionary adaptation vs physiological adaptation
evolutionary is an adaptation in a group/ species that is transferred to all members of the group; physiological is an individual adaptation and only gives that individual an ability
usually a tissue is held together by
extracellular matrix( complex of molecules that weaves them together to form fibers)
four main categories of tissues
1. epithelial
2. connective
3. nervous
4. muscle
Epithelial covers the outside of the body and functions as a barrier against
mechanical injury, invasive microorganisms, and fluid loss
Cells at the base of the epithelium are attached to and supported by
the basal lamina, a dense mat of extracellular matrix
Epithelia are classified by:
1. # of cells they contain
2. shape of cells on the free surface
simple epithelium is
a single layer of cells
stratified epithelium is
multiple layers of cells
shape of cells: may be (2)
cuboidal (cube shaped)
columnar (brick shaped)
squamous (flat)
epithelia that secrete/ absorb compounds of solution
glandular epithelia
ex- respiratary secretes mucus to lubricate and moisture
connective tissue functions to
bind and support
connective tissues consist of
a sparse population of cells throughout the matrix ; matrix is usually secreted by the connective tissue cells
3 kinds of connective tissue (all proteins)
1.Collagenous fibers: made of collagen; nonelastic and resist tearing when pulled lengthwise

2.Elastic fibers: made of elastin; provide rubbery characteristics to the ECM

3.Reticular fibers: made of collagen and weave together to form a fabric-like matrix that joins adjacent tissues.
Major types of connective tissue in vertebrates (6)
1. loose connective tissue
2. adipose tissue
3. fibrous connective tissue
4. cartilage
5. bone
6. blood
loose connective tissue binds _________to _________, holding organs in place
epithelia to underlying tissure
2 cells predominate in the loose connective tissue
1. fibroblasts- secrete proteins of the extracellular matrix
2.macrophages- engulf bacteria and debris of dead cells by phagocytosis
adipose tissue
form of loose connective tissue that stores fat- composed of adipose cells distributed throughout matrix
fat cells stored in ___ ________that swell when fat is stored and shrink when fat is converted to usable energy
fat droplets
fibrous connective tissue
dense network of collagen fibers arranged into parallel bundles
fibrous connective tissue makes up ______ which _____
and__________ which
tendons, which join muscle to bone
ligaments which join bone to bone (joints)
composed of collagen fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix of a chondroitin sulfate, a protein-carbohydrate complex.
cells that secrete collagen & chondroitin sulfate.
Embryonic skeleton first made of ________ which turns to ____
cartilage, bone
cartilage location in
ears, nose, vertebral disks
bone is
a mineralized connective tissue; makes up the skeletons of most vertebrates.
bone formation begins with
osteoblasts- deposit collagen matrix