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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does active transport mean?
"Active" means energy is being used.
What are two types of active transport?
Primary and secondary
What is facilitated diffusion?
Similar to active transport but energy is NOT required. Carrier molecule is used. High concentration to low concentration.
What is osmosis?
Diffusion of water?
What is bulk transport? Is it favored? Provide two examples.
Least favored method of movement. Requires lots of work and is slow. Examples include phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
What is the equation of Fick's Law of Diffusion
diffusion rate = [concentration gradient (c1 - c2) or membrane permeability][surface area][temp] / [sq rt mol weight][distance]
What is the surface area of the lung?
75 meters squared
What two factors in addition to those covered by Fick's Law of Diffusion can impact diffusion?
electrical potential difference, pressure difference
In what direction does facilitated diffusion go?
High concentration to low concentration?
Does facilitated diffusion use ATP?
In what two situations would facilitated diffusion be used?
Compounds are too large to go through membrane pore (large than 8 angstroms) OR compounds are not lipid soluable
Does facilitated diffusion utilize a carrier molecule?
What happens when equilibrium is achieved?
Same amount of compounds on each side of membrane.
Does movement occur with equilibrium? In which direction?
Yes - BOTH!
What two factors limit the use of facilitated diffusion?
Saturation - limited number of carrier molecules
Specificity - carrier molecules bind to specific ligands.
What is an example of specificity as it relates to facilitated diffusion?
Glucose is specific for GLUT carrier molecule.
Which direction does active transport move in?
Low concentration to high concentration - against concentration gradient
Is ATP used with active transport?
When is equilibrium reached with active transport?
It isn't. There is a constant uneven distribution. That is the "secret of life"
Does active transport utilize a carrier molecule?
Are carrier molecules always specific for the same molecule?
No - once a delivery is made, carrier molecule can change its confirmation to accept a different ligand. In class, the "same" carrier molecule transported Na+ and then K+.
What is osmosis?
MOVEMENT of H2O through a SEMIPERMEABLE membrane from an area of HIGH water concentration (LOW SOLUTE) to an area of LOW water concentration (HIGH SOLUTE)
What is the equation for osmotic pressure?
pie = (NUMBER of particles)(R = gas constant)(T = temp in kalvin)[(high con - low con)]
What is the equation for energy? What is its significance?
K (energy) = MV2 / 2 Larger mass = less velocity and vice versa. K is a constant so the NUMBER of particles matters more than the SIZE of the particles.
What is 1 Osmolar?
# of particles in 1 gram molecular weight of UNDISSOCIATED solute.

Glucose does not disassociate so it is 1 Osmol

NaCl is 2 Osmol because it disassociates
What is normal osmotic pressure of cells?
Between 285 and 300 mOsmol
How much osmotic pressure must cells surrounded by pure water generate to avoid water entering the cell?
5400mm Hg or 7 atm
What is an isotonic solution as it relates to cell? What is the mOsmol measurement? How much movement would there be?
300 mOsmol outside the cell. NET movement is zero BUT water moves in both directions
Where in the body can you find a hypertonic solution? What is mOsmol measurement?
Henley's loop - tip is 1400 mOsmol
Where in the body is mOsm measured? What kind of receptors are used?
hypothalamus' osmoreceptors
What three processes occur when neuronal osmoreceptors shrink?
Action potentials are generated, which causes the supraoptic nucleus in the hypothalamus to release ADH (aka vasopressin) / osmoreceptors also activate the thirst center / also indrectly cause release of angiotensin II into 3rd ventricle of brain to also activate thirst center
What is the role of ADH / vasopressin?
Allow Henley's Loop to become permeable to water, thus conserving water by moving it to the interstitial fluid.
What would be the expected mOsm in someone who was over hydrated?
Less than 280
Why use 5% dextrose in the clinical setting?
It is isotonic
What use isosaline in the clinical setting?
It is 300 mOsm - isotonic!
What is phagocytosis
cell eating
What is pinocytosis
cell drinking
What is the process by which particles are engulfed?
particle attachment to plasma membrane > influx of Na+ depolarizes membrane > release of Ca+ from ER (can store large amounts of Ca+) > Ca+ activates microfilaments and membrane contraction > membrane contraction > reuptake of Ca+ into ER > engulfment of particle > fusion with lysosome
What chemical does the right atrium secrete?