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132 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the outer ear consist of? (3)
pinna, external canal, tympanic membrane
What does the middle ear consist of? (5)
malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, round window
What does the inner ear (labyrinth) consist of?
3 semicircular canals, vestibule (utricle and saccule), involved in equilibrium

and cochlea involved in hearing
What does the cochlea consist of? (5 = 3 + 2)
scala vestibuli, scala tympani, scala media (cochlear duct), basilar membrane, vestibular membrane

cochlea = (auditory)
Describe the Spiral Organ?
sitting on the basilar membrane, in the cochlear duct
What consists of sound receptors, 3 rows of outer hair cells, 1 row of inner hair cells and supporting cells. Covered by tectorial membrane and surrounded by endolymph?
spiral organ
What carries bundles of stereocilia which are graded in height and exten into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. Synapse witht he first-order sensory neurons of the vestibulocochlear nerve, overlaid by tectorial membrane.
hair cells
What is a series of alternating high and low-pressure regions traveling in the same direction within a medium, frequency = pitch, loudness = amplitude?
sound waves
How are cilia connected to each other? (redo the response)
spring tip links

transduction channels (tip links) work together as (one) trap door - open or close
Spiral organ with its sound receptors is sitting on flexible _____ in the cochlear duct ?
Spiral organ with its sound receptors is sitting on basilar membrane

(is flexible compared to tectorial membrane)
What does each tip link connect to?
mechanically gated cation channel
The louder the sound, the larger the what?
basilar deviation, can lead to permanent damage of hair cells
What is the range of frequencies man can hear?
20-16.000 hz
function of ossicles?
ossicles amplifiy vibrations from ear drum

- then oval window viabration, then reaches fluid filled scala vestibuli producing waves -> waves go to side (vestibular membrane) -> middle duct -> basilar membrane -> inner duct blas
T/F Each segment of the basilar membrane is ‘tuned’ for a particular pitch

Sound waves of various frequencies cause specific regions of the basilar membrane to vibrate more than other regions
Each segment of the basilar membrane is ‘tuned’ for a particular pitch
What is the range of frequencies that Bats can hear?
up to 150.000 hz
What is the range of frequencies that CATS can hear?
40-60.000 hz
What is the range of frequencies that dolphins can hear?
up to 200.000 hz
What is a specialized transmitter - reciever sensroy system of high frequency sound to locate objects?
What is a sound of high frequency and intensity emitted via the larynx or by clicking of the tongue?
What is a sound reflected by objection is percieved via mandibles, inner ear?
What is it called when muscles in the middle ear contract just before sound emission, dampens vibration, protects inner ear against being deafened by their own sound?
tympanic reflex
What is a defect of EXTERNAL ear canal, ear drum, middle ear?
What is a defect of the inner ear / spiral organ, caused by senile degeneration, ototoxic drugs, inflammations, trauma / sound stress?
acquired nerve deafness
What is a defect of the inner ear / spiral organ, often associated with merle gene and/or piebald gene, incidences increases with amount of whiteness and blue iris coloration?
defect of INNER ear / spiral organ --> CONGENITAL nerve deafness
- w/o inner ear (spiral organ) cannot hear sound

merle gene - involved in dilution of hair color (e.g. black color if diluted -> are grey or bluish color -> great dane, cattle dog, austrailian dog, bull terrier

piebald gene - distribution of B&W
* if mostly white (also usually has blue iris), greater chance of being deaf...if 1 blue iris = 30% chance deaf....if 2 blue iris, 60% chance to be deaf
What is maintenance of body position (head) in relation to force of gravity, registers head tilt and linear movement?
static equilibrium
What is maintenance of body position (head) in response to sudden movements (rotational)?
dynamic equilibrium
Where are maculae located and what do they do?
located in saccule and utricle, provide information on head position and linear movements
Hair cells are stimulated by what?
head tilt and sudden linear acceleration
How does head tilt stimulate hair cells?
gravity pulls otolithic membrane in direction of the tilt, bending hair bundles
How does sudden linear acceleration stimulate hair cells?
due to its inertia, otolithic membrane lags behind actual movement, membrane bends in opposite direction
What is involved in dynamic equilibrium, contains hair cells, hair bundles are embedded in a gelatinous cupula?

* each of 3 semicircular ducts contains a CRISTA in its ampulla
* are at right angles to each other
--> 3 planes --> detection of rotational movements

Rotational movement:
Semicircular ducts move but endolymph lags behind due to its inertia --> cupula bends --> cilia bend --> transduction channels (tip links) open or close --> receptor potentials --> change in frequency of nerve impulses
Crista: contains hair cells, hair bundles are embedded in a
gelatinous cupula
To maintain balance, information from vestibular organs is transmitted to 4 vestibular nuclei, which connect to what?
To maintain balance, information from vestibular organs is transmitted to 4 vestibular nuclei, which connect to what?

Vestibular nuclei connect to --> gamma and alpha motor neurons or anti-gravity muscles, cerebellum, nuclei controlling eye muscles
What is the slow phase of nystagmus?
SLOW phase of nystagmus:
* as head rotates, eyes remain FIXED on current visual field = rotate against head movement
What is the quick phase of nystagmus?
Quick phase of nystagmus:
* as eyes reach limit of excursion, sudden quick movement with head rotation

> QUICK phase is usually char. by eye mov't AWAY from side of lesion
What causes eye movements without head rotations usually accompanied by head tilt and compulsory rotary movements (circling or rolling)?
vestibular syndrome
What is a chemical sense to discriminate between healthy and harmful food?
What cells produce supporting cells, turn into taste cells with microvilli protruding into a taste pore?
basal cells
How many taste buds do primates and ungulates have?
How many taste buds do cats/dog have?
500 - 2000
How many taste buds do chickens have?
What animals prefer a sweet taste?
ruminants, pigs, dogs
What animals prefer amino acid taste?
Where do fish have highly sensitive taste receptors?
skin, fins, and gills, detection of water pollution, enables "home coming"
Transduction / transmission of smell is via what?
olfactory bulb to olfactory cortex (part of the limbic system)
What is well developed in many reptiles and amphibians, develops as an outpocket of the nasal cavity with a duct connecting it to the oral cavity, volatile molecules are transferred via the tongue into the opening or washed into mouth by eye fluid?
vomeronasal organ
Where do all UMNs originate?
brain (cortex and brainstem)
What are UMNs responsible for?
initiation of voluntary movements of limbs and head, maintenance of normal muscle tone, regulation of posture
What are the two main UMN systems?
pyramidal and extra-pyramidal
What is the function of the extrapyramidal system?
maintains subconscious muscle tone and activates large muscle groups to achieve stable posture, balance, and smooth gait
Damage to the extrapyramidal system shows what signs?
UMN signs, muscle weakness with spastic paresis / paralysis, hyperreflexia, slow muscle atrophy
Name 4 cells involved in smell, and list
Smell Olfactory cells= bipolar nerve cells
Basal cells = precursors of olfactory cells !
Support cells and Mucus cells
baer test?
Brainstem Auditory Response test:

* tests puppies @ 6 wks. of age for deafness: checks hearing and uses sensors to detect brain activity

"From Online: Contrary to popular belief, puppies are not ‘born deaf’. Puppies are born with covering across ear which prevents sound from reaching functioning hearing organs. In normal development, this disintegrates about same time as eyes open. BAER test can only be performed after this happens, once a puppy is 4-5 weeks old."
Where do neurons originate in the extrapyramidal system?
brain stem (Rubrospinal tract)
Where do neurons originate in the pyramidal system?
motor cortex (corticospinal tract)
What is the pyramidal system involved in?
skilled, learned voluntary movements, requiring conscious thought
What does damage to the pyramidal system involve in primates?
typical UMN signs or facial and arm/hand muscles
What does damage to the pyramidal system involve in domestic animals?
gait remains mostly normal with mild postural response deficits
What can lesions in the telencephalon and diencephalon cause (damage to pyramidal system)?
contralateral mild postural deficits but no observable gait deficits
What can lesions in the brain stem cause (extrapyramidal system)
UMN signs with mild to severe gait deficits and postural deficits on the same side as the lesion
Clinical neurological signs are caused by dysfunction to _________ within the nervous system, not to a specific disease process? (shitty question)
specific area
What is the first step when evaluating a neurological patient?
determine the site of the lesion
What influences somatosensory cortex, visual cortex, olfactory cortex, motor cortex/pyramidal system, association cortex, cognitive functions, consciousness, memory, behavior, motivation, sensroy relay, sensory perception?
forebrain (cerebrum and diencephalon)
What influences reticular formation; motor system / extrapyramidal, midbrain (CNs III and IV), Pons (CN V, respiratory center), medulla (CN VI-XII, respiratory center)?
brain stem
What compares intended movements (via motor fiber input) with actual movements (via proprioceptive input) to coordinate and fine-tune?
rotational mov't of head picked up by?
semicircular canals
Fibers of spinal cord are more vulnerable to damage when? (2)
more superficially they are located and the more they are myelinated
Loss of deep pain sensation caudal to a lesion indicates what?
very severe spinal cord damage and carries a grave prognosis
What causes clinically important LMN signs in forelimb or hindlimb, such as muscle weakness with flaccid paresis-paralysis, reduced or absent spinal reflexes, quick muscle atrophy, and serious gait deficits?
damage to the ventral horns/roots in sections C6-T2 or L4-S2
Name 3 Tactile sensations:
Tactile sensations = touch, pressure, vibration
Describe ends of tactile receptors; give location
Receptors: free nerve endings and encapsulated mechanoreceptors
located in skin and subcutis
Types of sensors (encaps. receptors?)
1. can adapt rapidly and have very low threshold= highly sensitive and register

2. or adapt slowly = register permanent touch
Example of rapid tactile sensors
e.g. Hair root plexus-whiskers
e.g.2. Pacinian corpuscles sensitive to alternating pressure = vibration
(numerous in bird’s wing tips and waterbird’s legs)
Example of slowly adapting sensors = register permanent touch
(e.g. Merkel’s discs; Ruffinis corpuscles)
Touch-sensitive neurons enter the ________
to ascend to the Somato-Sensory Cortex (same as
conscious proprioception)
Touch-sensitive neurons enter the Dorsal Column also
Each spinal nerve innervates a segmental field of skin = ? .
Each spinal nerve innervates a segmental field of skin = DERMATOME
(Dermatomes of adjacent nerves overlap)
what is unique about AUTONOMOUS ZONE?
innervated by plexus nerves which originate from several spinal nerves
Contains melanin to absorb stray light and to prevent light scattering (->sharp images)
Pigment epithelium
layer of cells/fibers->reflects light= increases sensitivity?

present in?
Tapetum lucidum

, present in most mammals (except primates, pigs, camels), & some birds
Horizontal cells
Amacrine cells
Lateral information flow?
Fibrous tunic (outer) = ? + ?
Fibrous tunic = cornea + sclera
choroid + ciliary body + iris found in?
Vascular tunic (middle layer) = choroid + ciliary body + iris
3 cell types in the Neural epithelium (3-neuron chain)
1. Photoreceptor cells
2. Bipolar cells
3. Ganglion cells
Vertical information flow to optic nerve??
where axons of all ganglion cells leave eyeball as the Optic Nerve; contains no rods / cones
Blind spotof retina (= optic disc):
1. visual pathway starts what part of eye?

2. Sensory cells of involved in sight?
3. part of nervous system?
Retina (innermost)

photoreceptor cells
= Rods and Cones

not part of NS
Glycoprotein (=opsin) + Retinal (Vit A)
-Rods’ opsin= Rhodopsin
Cones’ opsin= Photopsins <---how many types?
Photopsins, 3 types (for 3 different wavelengths)
T/F photopigments of rods and cones undergo structural changes
when absorbing light (photons)
photopigments undergo structural changes when absorbing light (photons)

RETINAL fits into opsin receptor thing when in cis OR trans orientation?
when in CIS (unstimulated state)

(in trans the retinal changes its shape and detaches from opsin)
what is meant by "bleached" state?
when photo pigment is in trans state

Light = during bleaching process Isomerization of cis to TRANS-retinal activates enzymes
which (rods OR cones) regenerate fast , adapted to bright light conditions??

how long to regenerate 50%?
Cones/photopsins regenerate fast

(50% in 90 seconds)
regenerate slowly ?

how long to regen. 50%?
Rods/rhodopsins regenerate slowly
(50% in 5 min; 100% in 30-40 min)
Structural changes during light absorption/regeneration induce changes in photo-receptors’ membrane potentials via opening or closing of sodium channels = transduction
Partial depolarization (albeit low level -30mV) and release of glutamate occurs when stimulated OR during unstim.darkness?
in DARKNESS, channel stays open, Na+ keeps entering photoreceptor

steady release of glutamate (inhibitory neurotransmitter) occurs in darkness,
why does channel of photoreceptor stay open in darkness?
ligand (cyclic GMP) stays attached

(but if have light, detaches)
IPSPs at ___ cells

what is IPSP?
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

IPSPs at bipolar cells = few or no signals
why do we need rods and cones?
have diff. photopigments, excited at diff. wavelengths; allows to distinguish btw. colors

also different sensitivities to light
what wavelength are rods excited at?
what else unique about them?
rods are excited at bluish green type light

rods are better suited to LOW light situations; have more photopigment, more SENSITIVE
why can we see so many colors?
ratio of activation
(e.g. ratio of diff. opsins <- red or blue receptors, etc.)
Do rods contribute during bright light situations?
Not really, very FEW rods active @ bright light situations

(all cones),
rods initially stimulated, but quickly burn out
T/F Cattle are red blind.

T/F Horse are blue blind.

Human retina dominated by rods or cones?

we have some rods, but our retina dominated by cones
what happens to rods when go to bright light, or have been in bright light?
stimulated, used up quickly, all regenerating
* leaving cones to do their thing
bichromatic vision = ?
bichromatic vision -> like most mammals that have two types of cone opsins

(we have 3 types of opsins, so we can see more colors)
CONES / Photopsins: contain 3 different __?:
identify 3 diff. opsins
1. stimulated by BLUE wavelength range
2. stimulated by GREEN wavelength range
3. stimulated by RED wavelength range

- enable color vision
one of the many forms of vitamin A
T/F primates are bichromatic
False, tricromatic
4 adaptions to light change (light to dark)
Miosis =
pupillary constriction = Miosis
what is pupillary reflex (contricting pupil) control?

how does pupillary reflex help or affect night vision?
* control amount of light falling onto retina
* if really bright, miosis/contrict to lower amount of light entering

(dialates - mydrasis if want max amount of light to come in)
types of visual fields (2)
central visual field known as ?
MONOCULAR (peripheral) field
MONOCULAR (peripheral) field= field seen by one eye; large monocular fields enable good surveillance of external world (prey animals)
peripheral vision is projected onto?
1. PERIPHERAL vision enters to fibers in temporal portions
2. then peripheral/temporal signal is projected through optic chiasm and CROSS OVER
central vision enters how?
* projected on temporal side (outer) of retina
* central vision stays on same side of skull, stay ipsilateral
--see picture
T/F - optic tract (after optic chiasm X) has input from both eyes
Give path of visual input from eye to brain:
1. retina (photoreceptor)
2. optic nerve
3. optic chiasm
4. optic tract
5. lateral geniculus nucleus
6. optic striations -> project onto cortex
7. visual cortex - input percieved
lateral geniculus NUCLEI have what function?
LG nuclei is in thalmus, here nerve switch from 1st to 2nd order neurons, this is after optic chiasm & tract
T/F Humans have use fairly high amount of binocular vision and therefore so is amount of crossing over of peripheral field
True; in humans 50% of field (what we see) is "peripheral" and crosses over to other side of brain
Where in body do fibers from nasal portions of retina (= peripheral visual fields) cross over?
optic chiasm
Menace (blink) Response tests ?
Menace (blink) Response tests CN II including visual cortex andCN VII
(optic tract and eye and all other parts of pathways as well)
what happens at preTECTAL nuclei & mesencephalon?

what does "peeling off" refer to in ?
1. some fibers of optic tract "peel off" or leave main group (this before LG nucl.)
2. synapse with prerecttal nucleus in mesencephalon
3.leads to PS!! nuclei of CN III --> ciliary ganglion -->LMN to circular smooth muscles of iris (here fibers go to BOTH eyes) --> CONSTRICTION!!! of pupil (miosis)
shining light in one eye (e.g. right) tests?

which eye will constrict?
direct pupillary light reflex

both pupils constrict b/c of crossing over from 1. PRETECTUM
and 2. optic chiasm
if lesion here (1-4: from ON to optic tract), what is affected?
Deficits : vision and Papillary light reflex
if lesion here (5-7: from tract to back), what is affected?
deficits in conscious vision only

(don't need visual cortex for papillary light reflex)
if lesion here (8-10: mesencephalon), what is affected?

Deficits: PLR

Prognosis poor, damage in mesencephalon or brainstem very serious and extension
Parietal Eye( = Third Eye)

present in?
-present in lizards, frogs, some fish and sharks
-situated on head btw. eyes
-contains rudimentary lens and retina, covered with integument = cornea
-connected to pineal gland -involved in circadian rhythms & seasonal changes
Thermoreception = perception of heat and cold
•3 types of receptors, they are ?
1. cold receptors
2. warm receptors
3. pain receptors (for burning or hot)
-cold receptors include what fibers?
include free nerve endings, A delta sensory fibers
warm receptors include which fibers ?
warm receptors include (probably free nerve endings, C fibers)
Pit Organ in some snakes (pit vipers, pythons, some boas): situated ?

contain what kind of receptors?
between eyes and nostrils

Contain thermoreceptors sensitive to infrared thermal radiation, but not tovisible light (IR range: 0.7-15 u)
>enables binocular infrared vision =
detection of endothermic prey