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98 Cards in this Set

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The reproductive system consists of what?
Gonads (the location of sperm and eggs), reproductive tract, and accessory sex glands.
What are the primary reproductive organs?
Pair of testis in males or pair of ovaries in females.
What do the primary reproductive organs (testis/ovaries) produce?
Both produce gametes (germ cells).
What gametes are produced by males?
Spermatozoa
What gametes are produced by females?
Ova
What do gametes secrete?
Both secrete hormones.
What hormones do male gametes secrete?
The spermatozoa secretes testosterone.
What hormones do female gametes secrete?
The ova secrete estrogen and progesterone.
What is found in each gender?
A reproductive tract plus accessory organs. In addition each gender has unique secondary sexual characteristics (for example, differences in body configuration and distribution of body hair).
What are the two essential functions of the male reproductive system?
1. Production of sperm.

2. Delivery of sperm to the female.
What are the 6 essential functions of the female reproductive system?
1. Production of ova.

2. Reception of sperm.

3. Transport of sperm and ovum(egg) to a common site for union.

4. Maintenance of the developing fetus.

5. Parturition (giving birth)

6. Nourishing the infant (lactation)
Define parturition?
Giving birth.
What is the product of fertilization?
An embryo.
When is an embryo considered a fetus?
After two months it is considered a fetus.
In males, the ductus deferens is aka what?
Vas deferens.
List 12 components of the male reproductive system?
1. Urinary bladder

2. Ureter

3. Seminal vesicle (2)(glands)

4. Ejaculatory duct

5. Prostate gland (1)

6. Bulbourethral gland (2)

7. Ductus deferens

8. Epididymis

9. Testis (gonads, outside intestinal cavity)

10. Glans penis

11. Urethra

12. Penis
List 10 components of the female reproductive system?
1. Oviduct (fallopian tube)

2. Ovarian vesicles

3. Fimbriae

4. Ovary

5. Uterus

6. Vagina

7. Cervix

8. Cervical canal

9. Myometrium

10. Endometrium
The oviduct is aka?
Fallopian tube.
Where does fertilization of the ova occur?
In the oviduct.
Ovaries are the internal ? that produce the ?.
The internal gonads that produce the eggs (ova).
After fertilization where does development occur?
In the uterus.
Somatic cells could also be referred to as what?
Body cells.
Human somatic (body) cells have how many chromosomes? How many pairs?
Human somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. They have 23 HOMOLOGOUS pairs.
In human somatic cells the number 46 is the ? chromosome number.
46 = DIPLOID chromosome number.
What are the two reproductive cells?
Sperm and ova.
The reproductive cells each contain a ? ? of chromosomes.
The reproductive cells (ova/sperm) each contain a HALF SET of chromosomes. This is different than soma cells.
In gametes the number 23 is the ? chromosome number.
Gametes have the HAPLOID chromosome number = 23.
A sex cell (ovum or sperm) has ? chromosome of each kind, not ? as in the ? state.
A sex cell (ovum or sperm) has ONE chromosome of each kind, not TWO as in the DIPLOID state.
Cell division requires the division of what?
Cell division requires division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Define mitosis?
Mitosis maintains the chromosome NUMBER, chromosome COMBINATION, and genetic identity of the chromosomes from the dividing parent cell to the TWO DAUGHTER CELLS produced.
What kind of cells does mitosis produce?
Mitosis produces somatic cells.
Define meiosis?
One chromosome from each chromosome pair is inherited in each of FOUR DAUGHTER CELLS produced from a parent cell. So there is one chromosome from each chromosome pair.
What does meiosis produce?
Meiosis produces gametes. Gametes have one-half the chromosome number.
In meiosis you begin with what and end with what?
Meiosis proceeds from one cell with 2n chromosomes to 4 daughter cells with n chromosomes.
Gametogenesis occurs via what?
Gametogenesis occurs by meiosis.
The sperm and ova have ? ? ? of chromosomes.
the sperm and ova have unique haploid number of chromosomes.
The fusion of sperm and ovum results in what?
The fusion of sperm and ovum results in a new diploid individiual?
How many of the chromosomes pairs are autosomes? What is an autosome?
22 of the chromosome pairs are autosomes (non-sex chromosomes).
Which chromosomes are the sex chromosomes?
The 23rd pair is either XX (female) or XY (male). This is the genetic sex.
Of the sex chromosomes what do gametes normally receive?
Gamete normally receives one member from each pair (X or Y, male; X or X, female) during meiosis.
What determines the sex of an individual?
The combination of sex chromosomes determines the sex of an individual.
What combination of sex chromosomes results in a female?
Fertilization of an ovum (X chromosome) with a sperm with an X chromosome produces an XX combination (female).
What combination of sex chromosomes results in a male?
Fertilization of an X with a Y produces XY (male).
The combination of sex chromosomes (either XX or XY) determines the ? sex.
Determines the GENETIC sex.
The combination of sex chromosomes determines the genetic sex, which then determines what?
The combination of sex chromosomes determines genetic sex, which determines GONADAL SEX (testes or ovaries).
What does genetic sex NOT determine?
Genetic sex does not determine SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION (development of embryonic EXTERNAL genitalia and reproductive tract). This is dependent on more than just the sex chromosomes.
Generally speaking what is sexual differentiation dependent upon?
On the presence of absence of masculinizing determinants IN UTERO.
In a male embryo (with XY sex chromosomes) what results in the development of the gonadal sex?
The sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome (SRY) stimulates the production of H-Y antigen in the plasma membrane of the undifferentiated gonads. H-Y antigen directs differentiation of gonads into testes.


(presence of Y > SRY > H-Y ag > testes)
The SRY region influences gonadal sex in what week of development?
In the 7th week of development.
In a female embryo (with XX sex chromosomes) what results in the development of the gonadal sex?
There is no Y chromosome, so there is no SRY and no H-Y antigen. The absence of the H-Y antigen results in the undifferentiated gonads developing into ovaries.

(no Y > no SRY > no H-Y ag > ovaries)
Female reproductive physiology is ? ? than male reproductive physiology.
Female reproductive physiology is more complex than male reproductive physiology.
The female reproductive physiology involves complex ? of female sex hormones.
The female reproductive physiology involves complex cycling of female sex hormones.
The menstrual cycle repeats unless what occurs? Approximately how long is it?
The menstrual cycle repeats unless fertilization occurs. Approximately 28 days in length.
What happens to the menstrual cycle if fertilization occurs?
If fertilization occurs, the cycle is interrupted and the system adapts for nurturing and protecting the developing embryo and fetus.
What do the ovaries produce?
Ova and hormones, estrogen and progesterone.
The phenotypic sex development is what you ?.
Phenotype is what you 'see'. The apparent anatomic sex of an individual.
The development of phenotypic sex in males is an ? process and in females is a ? process.
The development of phenotypic sex in males is an ACTIVE process and in females is a PASSIVE process.
Both male and female sex differences begin with what?
They both begin with the same primitive undifferentiated tissues.
List the two primitive ducts?
1. Mullerian ducts (degenerated in males)

2. Wolffian ducts (degenerated in females)
What does dihydrotestosterone promote?
It promotes the development of undifferentiated external genitalia along male lines.
What does testosterone do to the wolffian ducts?
Testosterone transforms wolffian ducts into the male reproductive tract.
What does Mullerian-inhibiting factor do in males?
Degenerates the mullerian ducts.
What do testes secrete?
1. Testosterone

2. Mullerian-inhibiting factor
In females the absence of mullerian-inhibiting factor results in what?
The Mullerian-ducts develop into female reproductive tract.
In females the absence of testosterone results in what?
1. The degeneration of Wolffian-ducts

2. Undifferentiated external genitalia develop along female lines (labia, clitoris, etc.)
List 4 functions of estrogen.
1. Maturation and maintenance of the female system (NOT the differentiation, because that is from the absence of male factors)

2. Establishment of female secondary sexual characteristics

3. Ova maturation and release

4. Transport of sperm from vagina to site of fertilization in oviduct
What is an important function of progesterone?
It prepares a suitable environment for nourishing the developing embryo and fetus.
What is Oogenesis?
Female gametogenesis. The development of the ovum.
What are Oogonia?
Undifferentiated primordial sex cells.
How do the Oogonia divide?
MITOTICALLY in the fetus until the 5th month of gestation. This is why women only have a limited number of eggs.
The first MEIOTIC division of oogonium produces what?
A primary oocyte (diploid)
What is the primary follicle comprised of?
Oogonium is surrounded by granulosa cells.
In females from puberty to menopause some primary follicles develop into ? ? on a ? basis. What happens to these follicles?
In females from puberty to menopause some primary follicles develop into SECONDARY FOLLICLES on a CYCLICAL basis. These follicles, including the oocytes enlarge.
Just before ovulation, what does the primary oocyte complete?
Its first meiotic division.
Once the primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division what are the two products?
1. A larger secondary oocyte (this is the only product of interest)

2. First polar body (this degenerates)
The larger secondary oocyte that results from the meiotic division of the primary oocyte just before ovulation goes on to be ? and possibly ?.
It goes on to be OVULATED and possibly FERTILIZED.
What does sperm entry into the secondary oocyte trigger? What does this meiosis produce?
Sperm entry into this oocyte triggers the second meiotic division. This meisosis produces a second polar body (haploid) and a haploid, mature ovum (this is the final part of meiosis)
During the stages of oogenesis when does mitotic proliferation occur?
Prior to birth.
During the stages of oogenesis the first meiotic division of the enlarged primary oocyte occurs when?
Just prior to ovulation.
During the stages of oogenesis when does the second meiotic division (involving the secondary oocyte) occur?
Completed after fertilization.
What is the chromosome number associated with the enlarged primary oocyte?
46 (diploid number; doubled strands)
What is the chromosome number associated with the secondary oocyte?
23 (haploid number; doubled strands)
What are the chromosome numbers associated with the mature ovum?
23 (haploid number; single strands) from ovum plus 23 (haploid number; single strands) from sperm for diploid fertilized ovum with 46 chromosomes.
What does the ovarian cycle consists of?
Cycle consists of alternating follicular and luteal phases.
What is the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle dominated by?
It is dominated by maturing follicles (which consist of oocyte and granulosa cells)
When does the follicle dominate during the ovarian cycle?
Follicle dominates during first half of average 28 day cycle.
During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle what proliferates? Explain.
During the follicular phase the granulosa cells of some primary follicles proliferate. Oocyte inside each follicle enlarges (not all oocytes do this, only some). Thecal and granulosa cells (collectively called follicular cells) secrete increased amounts of estrogen, which circulates throughout the body.
During the follicular phase what grows more rapidly and when is it mature by? What ultimately happens to the follicle?
One follicle usually grows more rapidly and matures about 14 days after the onset of follicular development. The follicle ruptures to release the oocyte from the ovary (this is ovulation).
Once ovulation occurs what happens to the oocyte?
Oocyte enters oviduct where it may or may not be fertilized.
In the ovarian cycle during what days does the follicular phase occur?
Days 1 - 14
In the ovarian cycle during what days does the luteal phase occur?
Days 14 - 28.
When is the end of the follicular phase?
Day 14 of ovulation. You get one mature follicle from the many that were made.
Follicle cells positively stimulate what?
Cells will positively stimulate self to secrete more estrogen.
What is the corpus luteum?
Converted follicular cells left behind in the ovary after ovum (secondary oocyte) is ovulated.
When does the corpus luteum dominate?
In the last 14 days of the ovarian cycle (2nd half of cycle, days 14-28).
What does the corpus luteum secrete?
1. Increased amount of progesterone (not estrogen anymore like follicular phase)

2. Estrogen (there is some, just less than follicular phase)
When does the corpus luteum degenerate?
Corpus luteum degenerates 14 days after its formation unless fertilization and implantation occur.
What happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization occurs?
The corpus luteum continues to secrete hormones. In this situation it is called the corpus luteum of pregnancy.