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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Found in collecting duct and tubular compartment of nephron and mediates collecting duct's influence on Na and K:
principal cells
Buffy coat consists of:
leukocytes and plasma
What makes up formed elements:
erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
The main plasma proteins:
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
Supplies 15% of the buffering capacity of the blood:
Transporter of thyroid, adrenocorticoid, gonadal, and other hormones:
albumin and globulin
Where is essentially all albumin and fibrinogen and 50-80% of globuin formed:
Edema is caused by an (increase or decrease) of plasma protein concentration:
decrease (lowers oncotic pressure)
Committed cells become:
progenitor cells (which differentiate into various types)
Immature, undifferentiated, multipotent cells:
Two major types of WBCs:
granulocytes, agranulocytes
This breaks down fibrin:
Natural enzyme that converts plasminogen to plasmin:
Purpose of type II alveolar cell:
secrete surfactant
P1V1 = P2V2
Boye's law
The sum of risidual volume and expiratory reserve volume
functional residual capacity
Each gas has it's own partial pressure (law)
Dalton's Law
Gas dissolves in liquid in proportion to partial pressure and solubility coefficient (law)
Henry's Law
This effect states how pH affects the binding of O2 to Hb:
Bohr effect
This is secreted by the juxtoglomerular cells of the kidney:
The kidney as an endocrine gland secretes what two hormones:
renin, erythropoeitin
Renin is released in response to:
low BP
Glomerulus + Bowman's capsule:
Renal corpuscle
Straight arteries taht descend from cortex to medulla and surround the loop of Henle:
vasa recta
Part of kidney where blood vessels and nerves enter:
Tubular reabsorption occurs mainly in the ____ and the tubular secretion occurs mainly in the _____
The PCT drains into the ____________ and the Loop of Henle drains into the _______.
peritubular capillaries, vasa recta
The normal amount of filtrate formed by the kidneys:
125ml/min or 180L/day
Na+ - K+ - 2CL-- symporter mechanism is essential in what system and what drug affects this symporter
countercurrent multiplier system, Lasix
This makes collecting ducts more permeable to H2O; water is drawn out the the result is concentrated urine
These work on Na+ and Cl- carriers in the the DCT:
2nd class, thiozide diuretics
Two mechanisms that work to maintain GFR at 125ml/min:
myogenic mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
These cells line the DCT and sense increases in rate of filtrate flow and release vasocontrictor substance on afferent arterioles:
macula densa
These cells sense NaCl in DCT and secrete vasopressor:
macula densa
When liver, thymus, and spleen resume their hemtopoiesis function if necessary and this may occur in diseases where bone marrow is destroyed:
extramedullary hematopoiesis
Multilobed nuclei: involved in inflammatory and allergic reactions
Provide powerful defense against viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Enter tissues and become macrophages (such as Kupffer cells of liver)
monocytes and lymphoctes are what types of cells:
Dark colored, large quantities can cause dusky discoloration of skin resembling cyanosis and can be caused by blood exposed to various drugs and oxidizing agents (ferrous iron is converted to ferric iron)
These are not really cells, they are fragments of cells and don't have a nucleus or organelles and have average life span of 7-8 days:
Platelets/thrombocytes are split from these huge cells in bone marrow called:
What are the three phases of hemostasis:
1) vasoconstrictive/vascular spasm, 2) platelet plug, 3) coagulation phase
Endothelin from endothelial cells and serotonin from platelets trigger this:
vasoconstrictive/vascular spasm phase
These clotting factors require Vit K:
The extrinsic pathway of the blood clotting cascade requires:
tissue factor, TF (thromboplastin (factor III)) and this is activated by factor VII
This inhbits thrombin:
This interferes with the action of Vit K in coagulation:
Prevents platelets from sticking together:
Bind up Ca and used for collected blood:
Damage to brain in infants caused by elevated levels of biliruin (can be a result of Rh incompatibility and causes hemolysis of fetal RBCs)
What is this lipid: dipalmitoylphosphatidy-choline (DPPC)
makes up the pulmonary surfactant
What occurs if ventilation in alveolus is reduced relative to perfusion:
pO2 in alveolus falls and CO2 rises
What occurs if perfusion is reduced relative to ventilation:
alveolar pCO2 falls
what occurs if ventilation decreases:
pO2 decreases (less O2 delivered)
what occurs if perfusion decreases:
pCO2 decreases (less CO2 delivered and O2 rises because less enters blood)
this makes up 1/3 of tidal volume:
anatomical dead space
this is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume:
vital capacity
What does increased pCO2 do to CO2 binding to Hb:
decreases it (it increases unloading)
What does increased pO2 do to O2 binding to Hb
increases it
Which way does lower ph shift the oxy-Hb curve:
to the right
high CO2, low pH, and increased temps encourage:
O2 unloading
complete deprivation of O2
low pO2
70% of CO2 is transported as:
bicarbonate ions
In internal respiration, hypertonic plasma can occur if too many bicarbs leave, this is counterbalanced by:
chloride shift
Its major function is to control the basic rhythm of breathing:
medullary rhythmicity center
the medullary rhythmicity center contains what major collection of neurons:
dorsal respiratory group
This enfluences the dorsal respiratory group to increase respiratory rate and decrease depth of breathing:
pneumotaxic center
This enfluences the dorsal respiratory groups to decrease RR and increase depth of breathing:
apneustic center
CO2 in converted to H via this enzyme:
carbonic anhydrase
What influences the primary drive to breath:
elevation of CO2 levels
Severe exercise, exposure to cold and loss of carbohydrates (vomiting) can result in this being present in urine:
The most common cause of finding this is the uring is a bacterial infection
leukocytes esterase
this test can identify many UTIs
this is normally found in the urine in low concentrations and high levels can indicate hepatitis and cirrhosis and low levels can indicate hepatic or biliary obstruction