Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Overall process of providing O2 to the tissues and removing CO2
external respiration
metabolic reactions utilizing O2 to break down molecules of fuel resulting in the production of CO2
internal (cellular) respiration
What are the components of the upper airway
mouth, nose pharynx, larynx

trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
What is the fx of the conducting zone
brings air into and out of the respiratory zone; functions to warm, humidify, and filter the air before reaching the gas exchange areas
provides low-resistance pathway for air flow
defends against microbes, toxic chem., etc
warms and moistens air; phonates
conducting zone
What is the main conducting airway
What constitues the first 16 levels of branching in the conducting zone
The conducting airways are lined with ________ that fx to remove inhaled particles contributing to the defense mechs of the upper airways
mucous-secreting and ciliated cells
What innervates the smooth muscle of the conducting airways
Beta 2 receptors of the SNS mediate ____ actions of the neurotransmitter ____; whereas muscarinic receptors of the PNS mediate ____ actions of the neurotransmitter ___.
bronchodilating, NE

bronchoconstrictor; acetylcholine
Activation of (SNS/PNS) increases bronchial secretions, & activation of (SNS/PNS) decreases them
The respiratory zone includes
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs
How many levels of branching are in the resp. zone
How many alveoli and how much surface area is in the resp. zone
300 million alveoli; 100 sq meters
Where do the diffusion of gases occur
resp. zone
What 2 types of epithelial cells are present in the alveoli and which produces surfactant
Type I & II pneumocytes;

Type II
Reduces the surface tension and prevents the collapse of the individual alveolar sacs
The alveolar-capillary membrane is very (thick or thin) facilitating the diffusion & exchange of gases
Present to engulf foreign particles allowing the alveoli to fx optimally
alveolar macrophages
Blood flow to the lung originates from where
the RV
Supplies blood to the conducting airways to provide nutrition
bronchial flow
Supplies blood to the alveoli for the gas exchange process, and is also important in providing nutrition to the alveolar wall
pulmonary flow
How much blood vol is in the lung at any one time
10% of total circulating blood vol (500 ml)
At rest the vol of blood in the capillary network is about ___, however, during exercise, maximal capillary vol of about ___ can be reached
70 ml

200 ml
What are 3 ways that the pulmonary vascular system is diff from the systemic
Low pressure, low resistance, high compliance
Resistance to blood flow in the pulm circulation is only ___ that of the systemic
Blood flow is regulated by what 2 mechanisms
passive and active
What is the predominant mech of regulation of blood flow
Why can the lung vasculature significantly inc flow w/ minor changes in pressure
Passive: recruitment and distention
What do the following do to the vasomotor tone of the pulm vasculature
Active: dec/inc alveolar O2, NE (alpha & beta receptors), serotonin, inc CO2, acetylcholine, NO, TXA2, histamine, prostacyclin
Vasoconstrict: dec O2, NE on alpha, histamine, serotonin, inc CO2, TXA2

Vasodilate: inc O2, NE on beta, prostacyclin, NO, acetylcholine
Vasomotor tone is associated w/ which mech of blood flow regulation
What is the predominant active mech
changes in alveolar O2
In the lungs, low O2 results in

In systemic circulation, low O2 results in

What are examples of generalized hypoxia

What can this lead to
high altitudes, emphysema

pulmonary hypertension
In regional hypoxia, what happens
shunting of blood from alveoli w/ high concentrations of O2
Each lung resides in its own
pleural cavity
The lungs are covered w/ a secretory layer of cells called
visceral pleura
The ____ (also secretory) covers the inner chest wall, diaphragm, and lateral walls of the mediastinum
parietal pleura
What facilitates the movement of the lungs w/in each pleural cavity
mucous secretions (pleural fluid)
The lymphatics plays what 2 important roles
lung fluid balance and respiratory defense
What is the largest surface area of the body exposed to the external environment
gas exchange surface of the lungs
_____ come into play w/ vigorous inspiration such as during exercise
external intercostals
_________ come into play during conscious foreful expiration
abdominal & internal intercostals
Aids in the expansion of the lung & prevent collapse of the lung due to elastic tissue
intrapleural pressure (Ppl)
The presence of surfactant works in conjunction w/ ____ to maintain patency of the alveoli
intrapleural press (Ppl)
pressure gradient across the lung wall & keeps the lung from collapsing
transpulmonary press (Pl = Palv-Ppl)
An inc in Pl aids in the ____ of the lung during (exp/inspiration)
Pl; inspiration
pressure across the airway wall
Pta (transairway press)
Pta becomes more (positive/negative) during inspiration and (pos/neg) during expiration

Which pressure influences airway diameter and thus resistance to airflow
transairway press (Pta)
Press grad from the atm to the alveoli
Ptr (transrespiratory press)
Determines the overall buld airflow into and out of the lung
What are the following equations:
Pl = Palv - Ppl
Pta = Paw - Ppl
Ptr = Patm - Palv
Which pressures are equal at end exp and end insp
Palv = Patm
Which press is always neg
What are the 3 primary factors involved in inspiration
expansion of lungs against elastic forces
viscosity of lung & chest wall
airway resistance (Raw)
Airflow =
(Patm - Palv)/Raw
What is the main determinant of airway resistance
airway radius
What are the humoral factors that affect radius
leukotrienes & histamine (constrict)
NO (dilates)
What are the local mech that affect airway radius
changes in CO2

Inc = dilation
dec = constriction
At onset of inspiration, what happens to Ppl
becomes more neg
At onset insp, what happens to Palv and why
dec below Patm allowing for movement of air into the lung
Amt of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation
Amt of air that can be forcefully exhaled after normal Vt exhalation
Amt of air inhaled or exhaled w/ each breath under resting conditions
Amt of air that can be forcefully inhaled after normal Vt inhalation
Max amt of air that can be expired after a max inspiratory effort
Max amt of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration
Vol of air remaining in the lungs after a normal Vt expiration
Max amt of air contained in the lungs after a max inspiratory effort
What method cannot directly measure RV
Direct spirometry
When exhalation is performed as rapidly and forcibly as possible
Forced vital capacity
What is normal FVC in an adult
5 Liters
Normal FEV1 is
75-80% of FVC
What is dec/inc in empysema (obstructive)

What is dec/inc in pulmonary fibrosis (restrictive)
dec FEV1

dec FEV1 & dec FVC
Which (obst/restrictive) has a normal FEV1/FVC ratio of 75%
Physiology dead space =
anatomic + alveolar dead space
Vol of air in the conducting zone airways that does not participate in gas exchange
anatomic dead space
portion of alveolar air not participating in gas exchange b/c of inadequate blood flow to alveoli or inadequate ventilation
functional (alveolar) dead space
What is normal anatomic dead space
150 ml
Total amount of air movement into and out of the lungs
Minute ventilation
V =
Vt X breaths/min
Rate at which new air reaches respiratory zone of lung and is V corrected for physiologic dead space
alveolar ventilation (Va)
Va =
(Vt - Vd) X breaths/min
What is the best way to increase alveolar ventilation
increase the depth of breathing, not the rate
____ refers to the distensibility factors; meas of how vol changes as a result of pressure changes
compliance (lung & chest wall)
Lungs have a natural tendency to recoil (outward/inward)
Compliance =
Change lung vol/(Palv - Ppl) = ^V/^Ptp