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227 Cards in this Set

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Circulatory Sys: LymphVascular Sys: Lymph Vessels- 3 types
1.Lymph Capillaries
2.Collecting Vessels
3.Lymphatic Ducts
Lymph Capillaries:
size of blood cap's; dead end sacs; intermingle w/ blood cap's; found @ tiss level
lacteals:
special lymph cap found in small int
Collecting Vessels:
size of small veins; internally contain valves: prevent backflow of lymph; formed by fusion of lymph cap's; supply lymph nodes
Lymphatic Ducts:
fusion of collecting vessels;
1.R lymphatic duct
2.L lymphatic duct
R lymphatic duct
smaller b/c receives lymph from RU quadrant of body (diaphragm to head); ultimately drains into R subclavian vein
L lymphatic duct
larger; drains lymph from entire L side of body & RL quadrant of body; begins @ cisterna chyll @ L2 vertebra->ascends up thru thoractic cavity->to heart; ultimately drains lymph into L subclavian vein
Lymph: characteristics
similar to blood plasma, but contains far less protein
Lymph: Formation & circulation
1.blood cap's in tissues filter the plasma
2.into tissue fluid: 40% tiss fluid goes back into cir. sys into venules & 60% enters lymphatic cap's
3.from lymph cap's passed to collecting vessels, to L/R lymphatic ducts, to L/R subclavian veins
Lymph Nodes:
microscopic in size; found in all tissues of the body
Lymph Nodes: large accumulations/aggregations
1.cervical region
2.antecubital region (in front of elbow)
3.inguinal region (medial region of thigh)
4.axillary region
Lymph Nodes: Structure
1.afferent collecting vessels
2.lymph sinuses
3.efferent collecting vessels
afferent collecting vessels:
structure that bring lymph to node;
1.capsule:outer layer of thin CT
2.trabeculae: ext of vessels into lymph nodes forming compartments
3.lymphatic nodules: found w/in compartments
lymphatic nodule:
contain germinal center: where B & T lymphocytes are reproduced
Lymph Sinuses:
spaces containing lymph
final order:
afferent collecting vessels->lymph nodes, surrounded by lymph sinuses->efferent collecting vessels
Lymph Nodes: Fxns
1.purify lymph: in lymph sinuses find macrophages/reticuloendothelial cells that destroy old RBCs, bacteria & cellular debris by phagocytosis
2.production of T lymphocytes: cell mediated immunity
3. production of B lymphocytes: humoral immunity
Lymph-Vascular sys Fxn:
1.same fxns as lymph nodes
2.return of tissue fluid to circulatory sys
3.lacteals absorb lipids in dig tract/GI tract
if lymph vessels become blocked:
lymphedema: swelling of tissues due to tissue fluid accumulation; elephantiasis-when scar tissue obliterates LV's
Spleen:
carries out fxns w/ blood cells; largest lymphatic organ; oval and elongated; red due to blood in it
Spleen: Location
LU quad in abdomen: L of stomach, under diaphragm, L of kidney
Spleen: Structure
1.external capsule: thin layer CT; smooth musc embedded in CT
2.trabeculae: extensions of capsule into inner portion making compartments
3.splenic pulp: white & red pulp
White spleenic pulp-
lymphatic nodules; similar to lymph node
Red Spleenic pulp-
outside white pulp; made up of blood sinuses containing a high number of RBCs; walls of sinuses similar to cap's w/ microphagic cells lining walls
Spleen: Fxns
1.lymphatic nodules: site where specific B & T lymphocytes made
2.destruction of dying RBCs
3.can inject up to 200mL blood into circulation
Respiratory Sys: external respiration
exchange of O2/CO2 b/w ext env & blood; occurs outside lungs
Respiratory Sys: Internal respiration
exchange of O2/CO2 b/w blood & all cells of the body; occurs inside tissues
Respiratory Sys: cellular respiration
series of biomechanical rxns; O2 consumed & CO2 produced thruout rxns; krebs cycle, electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation all working together
Respiratory Sys: inspiration
inhalation; air taken up into lungs
Respiratory Sys: expiration
exhalation; air expelled from lungs
Respiratory Sys: Location
1.head
2.neck
3.thoracic cavity
Respiratory Sys: thoracic cavity
1.walls: ribs & assoc intercostal musc, thoracic vert,
2.floor: diaphragm- dome shaped skeletal musc @ base of lungs
Respiratory Sys: PAthway of Air
1.upper respiratory tract
2.lower respiratory tract
upper resp tract:
nostrils->nasal cavities->nasopharynx->oropharynx->laryngopharynx->larynx-> end @ pharynx
lower resp tract:
1.larynx
2.trachea
3.primary bronchi
4.secondary bronchi
5.tertiary bronchi
6.bronchioles
7.alveolar duct
8.alveoli
lower resp tract: larynx
hyaline cart, elastic cart, skeletal musc, various ligaments;
larynx: 3 major regions
1.body: made of 2 major cart- thyroid cart in upper region & cricoid cart in lower region
2.epiglottis: elastic cart; flexible; when moves covers rima glottidus, closing opening when swallowing
3.rima glottidus: opening into larynx & vocal cords on either side
lower resp tract: trachea
"wind pipe" 12 in long; connects larynx to 2 smaller tubes: brimary bronchi; largest tube of airway; walls made up of Cshaped cart rings to keep from collapsing; smooth musc also @ walls
lower resp tract: primary bronchi (2)
L&R (R branches quickly so shorter); walls identical to trachea; leads to L&Rlungs; subdivide themselves into secondary bronchi
lower resp tract: secondary bronchi (5)
walls identical to trachea; leads to lobes of lungs; R has 3 bronchi & L has 2 bronchi
lower resp tract: tertiary bronchi
subdivede from secondary bronchi; very numerous; no Cshaped rings, so appear as flat, curved cartilage plates
lower resp tract: bronchioles
derived from tertiary bronchi; no cartilage @ all; walls entirely smooth musc
lower resp tract: alveolar duct
connects bronchiole to alveolar sac
lower resp tract: alveoli/alveolar sac
clusters of grapes on vine; alveolar sac made of many many alveoli; hollow, containing air; single cell thick; blood caps @ outer surface (site of O2/CO2 exchange); inner surface covered by chemical: surfactant
surfactant:
prevents alveolus from collapsing
Breathing mvmts that produce Lung Ventilation:
1.relationship of lungs to thoracic cavity
2. cause & effect relationship
Relationship of lungs & thoracic cavity:
1.air tight space: not open to outside air
2.parietal pleura: memb connected to int intercostal musc
3.visceral pleura
4.pleural space: mintues space b/w the 2, contains pleural fluid
pleural fluid:
acts like glue keeping 2 membranes in contact @ all times
Significance visc pleura ->pleural fluid->parietal pleura
keeps lungs attached to walls of thoracic cavity; change in vol in thoracic cavity = change in vol in lungs
pneumothorax:
air in space where fluid supposed to be & lungs collapse; collapsed lung= atelectasis
Cause & Effect Rel: Inspiration
ext intercostals contract->ribs move forward & upward->disphragm contracts->dome shape flattens->vol thor cavity increases->lung vol inc->alveolar air pressure dec->air forced into lungs
Cause & Effect Rel: Expiration @ rest
ext intercostals relax->returns ribcage to resting pos->diaphragm relaxes-> returns to dome shape-> vol thoracic cavity dec->lung vol dec->alveolar air press inc-> air forced out of lungs to env
Cause & Effect Rel: Expiration during Ex
breathing more quickly & deeply; inhalation has occured, int intercostals contract-> rib cage returns to norm position quickly->abdominal musc contract->abdomen&lungs compressed ->forced exhalation
Lung Volumes: Tidal Volume
@ rest; 500mL air; volume of air exchanged in normal quiet breathing
Lung Volumes: Inspiratory Reserve Vol
IRV; vol of air exchanged from end of normal inhalation to max inhalation; M 3000mL & F 2100mL
Lung Volumes: Expiratory Reserve Vol
ERV; vol of air exchanged after normal exhalation; M 1200mL & F 800mL
Lung Volumes: Vital Capacity
vol from max inhalation to max exhalation, including tidal vol; M 4700mL & F 3400mL
Lung Volumes: Residual vol
vol of air remaining in lungs after max exhalation; M 1200mL & F 1000mL
Lung Volumes: Total lung capacity
TLC= IRV + Tv + ERV + RV; M 5900mL & F 4400mL
Lung Volumes: Dead Space
air found from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles; gases/air in these regions dont exchange w/ blood; 150mL
Nervous Control of Rhythmic Breathing: Physiological Centers
1.Respiratory Center in MO: comprised of 2 regions
2.pontine resp group (PRG) in pons
3.Apneustic Center in pons
2 regions of Respiratory center:
1.inspiratory center/ dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
2.expiratory center/ventral resp group (VRG)
Mechanism of normal quiet breathing: inhalation/exhalation
DRG automatically turned off: DRG sends stim for 2sec to respiratory musc (intercostals & diaphragm)->contract->inhalation->DRG turns off & no stim sent-> resp musc relax->exhalation (passive)
Theoretical mech in rapid deep breathing:
picture
apneusis:
causes to breath in & hold- no exhalation; done during rapid exercise
Eupnea:
normal quiet breathing
Apnea:
absence of breathing mvmts
Hyperpnea:
rapid, deep breathing; commonly associated w/ exercise
Dyspnea:
difficult or labored breathing; associated w/ problems in resp sys
Regulation of Lung Ventilation: Factors
1.PCO2
2.H+ concentration
3.lack of O2/hypoxemia
all in arterial blood
High PCO2: carbonic rxn
(forward) CO2 + H2O ->H2CO3 ->H+ & HCO3-
Low PCO2: carbonic rxn
(reversed) H+ & HCO3 -> H2CO3 -> H2) & CO2 exhaled
Regulation of Lung Ventilation: Hypercapnia
PCO2 high in art blood; inc PCO@: inc PCO2 in CSF: forward carbonic rxn: inc H+ in CSF: stim central chemorecptors: stim DRG: hyperpnea: exhaling more CO2: dec PCO2 in art blood: dec PCO2 in CSF: reversed carbonic rxn: dec H+ in CSF: eupnea
Regulation of Lung Ventilation: Acidosis
H+ content of arterial blood too high -> reduce pH to 7.35
Acidosis: Respiratory Acidosis
result from head injuries-abnormal fxn of resp center, or obstruction in airways, or pneumonia (inc H+ & CO2)
Acidosis: Metabolic Acidosis
fixed acids added to blood; causes 1.lactic acid from vigorous ex, 2.keto acids from diabetic w/o insulin therapy, 3.problems w/ kidneys: kidney failure
Response mechanism to Acidosis:
inc H+ in art blood: stim aortic & carotid chemoreceptors: travel by vagus nerve& glossopharyngeal nerve to DRG: stim/inc lung ventilation: loss of CO2 from blood: dec H+ in art blood *lungs can only dec H+, not completely alleviate acidosis
Regulation of Lung Ventilation: Hypoxemia
lack of O2 in arterial blood: stim aortic & carotid chemoreceptors; impt w/ high altitude
Respiratory fxns of blood:
1.CO2/O2 transport
2.provides alkaline reserve
CO2/O2 transport: partial pressure & diffusion of gases- alveoli
1 PO2 high: diffuses into blood from alveoli
2.PCO2 low: diffuses from blood to alveoli & exhaled
CO2/O2 transport: partial pressure & diffusion of gases- body tissues
1.PCO2 high: diffuses into blood from tissues
2.PO2 low: diffuses into cells
CO2/O2 transport: chemical forms of transported gases- O2
5% dissolved in plasma/95% combined w/ Hb producing oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
CO2/O2 transport: chemical forms of transported gases- CO2
5% dissolves in plasma/ 20% combines w/ HB forming carboxyhemoglobin HbCO2/ 75% HCO3 bicardonate ion
CO2/O2 transport: Exchange of CO2.O2 content in tissues
picture
CO2/O2 transport: Exchange of CO2.O2 content in lungs
picture; exactly opp of tissues
Alkaline reserve:
RBCs produce HCO3-: enters plasma & associates w/ Na+
1.maintenance of blood pH 7.35-7.45
2.maintenance good only up to point- NaHCO3 used up
3.buffer b/c ability to react w/ acids & neutralize them
Hypoxia:
lack of O2 in blood
Hypoxemia:
lack of O2 in arterial blood
Anemic Hypoxia:
lack of O2 in arterial blood due to abnormal low RBC #, Hb content less than normal, or presence of abnormal Hb
Stagnant Hypoxia:
O2 content in arterial blood normal, but dec cardiac output due to tissues not receiving adequate blood supply: not right amount of O2
Histotoxic Hypoxia:
low O2 content in arterial blood due to poisons that combine w/ Hb better than O2: carbon monoxide or cyanide
Chronic Hypoxia:
chronic lack of O2 in arterial blood; w/ normal indiv this is assoc w/ high altitudes
Digestive Sys/GI tract/Alimentary Canal: Structures
mouth: pharynx: stomach: small int: large int: anus
Digestive Sys/GI tract/Alimentary Canal: Associated glands:
salivary glands: pancreas: liver
Digestive Sys/GI tract/Alimentary Canal: Fxns
1.phys/chem alterations of food into organic nutrients
2.absorption of organic nutrients-salts & water-into blood
3.elimination of solid waste from body
Dig Sys: Mouth, Roof
1.hard palate: anterior portion; made up of portions of maxillary bone & palatine bones; covered by mucous memb
2.soft palate: posterior to hard; made up of skeletal musc, covered by same mucous memb; contains uvula
Dig Sys: Mouth,Lateral Borders
cheeks: made of skeletal musc & skin
Dig Sys: Mouth, Floor
made of skeletal musc & covered by mucous memb (tongue just above floor)
Dig Sys: Mouth, Fauces
opening b/w oral cavity/mouth & oropharynx; palatine arches slightly b/w the 2 containing palatine tonsils
Dig Sys: Salivary Glands
3, all bilateral
1.Parotid Gland
2.Sublingual Gland
3.Submandibular Gland
Parotid Gland:
largest of the 3; anterior to the ear, near angle of mandible; release serous secretion containing enzyme: ptyalin/salivary amylase
Sublingual Gland:
found just under tongue; many fine ducts that release mucoserous secretion
Submandibular Gland:
posterior to sublingual gland; releases mucous secretion w/ small amount of ptyalin
Dig Sys: Pharynx
Throat; 3 connecting regions:
1.Nasopharynx: behind nasal cavity
2.Oropharynx: behind mouth
3.Laryngopharynx: connects to esophagus
Dig Sys: Esophagus
collapsable tube; highly muscular; connects laryngopharynx to stomach
Esophagus Fxn
transport food down to stomach
Esophagus Structure
4 layers tissues:
1.Tunica Adventitia
2.Tunica Muscularis
3.Tunica Submucosa
4.Tunica Mucosa
Esophagus: T. Adventitia
WFCT; connects esophagus to surrounding tissues
Esophagus: T. Muscularis
skeletal & smooth musc; upper 1/3 skeletal (near mouth) & middle 1/3 skel & smooth & lower 1/3 smooth; 2 layers:
1.outer (longitudinal) & 2.inner (circular around lumen)
Esophagus: T. Submucosa
highly vascularized; aereolar tissue; connects muscularis to mucosa
Esophagus: T. Mucosa
mucous memb; lines lumen; in direct contact w/ food as travels down esophagus
Dig Sys: Stomach-Location
under diaphragm & liver: L hypochondrium & epigastrium
Dig Sys: Stomach-Divisions
1.Cardiac region
2.Fundus
3.Body
4.Antrum
5.Pylorus
Cardiac Region:
next to opening where esop enters stomach; circular smooth musc @ entry point-"cardiac sphincter" preventing regurgitation
Fundus:
L side of Stomach; blind pouch
Body:
below cardiac center & fundus; largest region, where most of acidic material present
Antrum:
narrow region below body; funnel-shaped
Pylorus:
further narrowing to end @ pyloric sphincter
Pyloric Sphincter:
regulates mvmt of stomach contents into duodenum
Dig Sys: Stomach-Curvatures
1.greater: L side; adjacent to spleen
2.lesser: R side; adjacent to spleen
Dig Sys: Stomach-Layers of tissue
1.Tunica Serosa
2.Tunica Muscularis
3.Tunica Submucosa
4.Tunica Mucosa
Stomach: T. Serosa
thin memb like, serous memb; outer covering of stomach; embedded w/ fat @ greater & lesser curvatures; @ curvatures ahve memb folds & form double layer: greater omentum
greater omentum:
double layer serous memb; embedded w/ fat; begins @ lower stomach & covers abdominal contents
-fxn: provide some insulation to interanl organs
Stomach: T. Muscularis
smooth musc, 3 layers:
1.outer: longitudinal musc, begins @ fundus & extends to pyloris
2.middle: circular musc
3.inner: oblique musc; begins @ lesser curvature & extends to greater curvature
Stomahc: T. Submucosa
vascularized aereolar tissue; connects musc to inner lining of stomach, mucosa
Stomach: T. Mucosa
mucous memb; includes gastric glands
Rugae:
houses T. Submucosa & Mucosa; as fills w/ food, flattens
Cell types & secretions associated w/ Gastric Glands:
1.parietal cells
2.chief cells
3.mucous neck cells
parietal cells:
secrete H+ ions & Cl- ions; when the 2 mix in lumen they form HCl-, giving the stomach the acidic pH; secretes pr: intrinsic factor
cheif cells:
pepsinogen
mucous neck cells:
secrete mucus to protect stomach walls/lining from HCl-
Dig Sys: Stomach-Fxns
1.physically mixes food w/ gastric juices
2.secretes gastric juice: HCl- primarily & pepsin; combo used for chemical digestion
3.secretes special pr: intrinsic factor
intrinsic factr:
required for Vit B12 absorption from food in ileum of small int
lack of intrinsic factor:
lack of vit B12 absorption: Vit B12 deficiency: pernicious anemia
Dig Sys: Small Int
diameter 1" & life length 6'; located in abdominal cavity; highly coiled; most must be supported by mesentary
mesentary:
double layer of visceral peritoneum; attaches small int to posterior body wall (except duodenum)
Small Int: Divisions
1.Duodenum
2.Jejunum
3.Ileum
Duodenum:
10" past pyloric sphincter of stomach; Cshaped; part of small int not proteted by mesentary; held in position by WFCT
Jejunum:
2' past duodenum; can only distinguish from ileum microscopically by peyers patches
Ileum:
3' past jejunum; contains lymphoid tissue: peyers patches; extends, coils around & terminates @ ileo-cecal valve
ileo-cecal valve:
connection of ileum & cecum; fxn: regulates mvmt of small int contents into cecum preventing regurgitation back into ileum
Small Int: Layers of Tissue
1.Tunica Serosa
2.Tunica Muscularis
3.Tunica Submucosa
4.Tunica Mucosa
Small Int: T.Serosa
outer layer; visibly seen; aka outer visceral peritoneum/serous memb; forms double layer: mesentary- just over the jejunum & ileum
Small Int: T.Muscularis
2 layers of smooth muscle: outer (longitudinal; duodenum to ileum) & inner (circular; around lumen)
Small Int: T.Submucosa
areolar tissue; contains BVs, LVs & nerves; connects T.Muscularis to inner lining of gut: T. Mucosa
Small Int: T.Mucosa
innermost layer; single layer of cells; all cells together make up mucous memb; shape=Villus (finger like projection); villi extend off plicae circularis increasing SA for absorption
together, T.Submucosa & Mucosa
form plicae circularis: circular folds w/ fxn of increasing SA of small int
Structures internal to Villus:
1.submucosal tissue
2.lacteal: dead end lymph capillary
3.network of blood capillaries around lacteal
Depressions b/w Villi:
crypts of lieberkuhn; aka small intestinal glands; secrete watery fluid; source of mucosal cells; divide & move upward, then differentiate
Crypts of Leiberkuhn differentiate into:
1.enterocyte: invovled w/ absorption
2.goblet cell: secrete mucus
3.paneth cells: @ bottom of crypt, secrete enzymes including pepsidases (chem digestion) & lysosomes (kill bac)
Small Int: Fxns
1.complete chem dig
2.absorption of dig end products; absorbs vit, water, salts
3.specific endocrine cells in duodenum regulate dig process
Dig Sys: Large Int-Divisions
1.Cecum
2.Colon
3.Rectum
Large Int: Cecum
blind pouch; connect to ileum & colon; extension of cecum=appendix found in LR abdominal quadrant
Large Int: Colon
1.ascending colon
2.transverse colon
3.descending colon
4.sigmoid colon
ascending colon:
found on R lateral side of abdominal cavity; ascends from cecum to liver & makes 90 degree turn: hepatic flexure & leads to transverse colon
transverse colon:
begins @ liver, extends horizontally to spleen, makes another 90 degree turn: spleenic flexure, & leads to descending colon
descending colon:
extends from spleen to iliac crest & makes S curve of sigmoid colon
sigmoid colon:
bringing us into pelvic cavity; end of sigmoid colon=end of colon & attachment of rectum
Large Int: Rectum
sigmoid colon connects to rectum in pelvic cavity; 10" long; reservoir for fecal material; connects to anal canal
anal canal
connects rectum to outside of body; @ terminal portion, 2 sphincter musc:
1.internal anal sphincter: smooth musc/involuntary
2.external anal sphincter: skeletal musc/voluntary
Large Int: Layers of Tissues
1.Tunica Serosa
2.Tunica Muscularis
3.Tunica Submucosa
4.Tunica Mucosa
Large Int: T.Serosa
outer layer; visceral peritoneum; forms mesentary
Large Int: T.Muscularis
2 layers: outer (longitudinal); 3 strips of smooth muscle: Taenia coli; begins @ cecum & extends to sigmoid colon; shorter in length than entire colon, creating pouches: haustrae & inner: (Circular) around lumen
Large Int: T.Submucosa
same as small int, but reduction in amount of LVs
Large Int: T.Mucosa
single layer of cells including Goblet cells; no villi; no crypts of leiberkuhn; inner surface is smooth
Large Int: Fxns
1.absorption of H2O: causes deep compaction of fecal material
2.absorption of VitB complex & VitK from source: bacteria living in colon & producing vit's
3.elimination of feces from body
Large Int: Ancillary Organs
structures that participate in dig sys & other fxns
1.Liver
2.Gall Bladder & assoc ducts
3.Pancreas
Liver:
largest gland in the body; 3-4 pounds in aduult
Liver: Location
R hypochodrium & epigastrium (superficial abdominal area)
Liver: External Structure
4 lobes; Falciform Ligament divides liver into R/L lobes
1.Anterior side: R lobe & L lobe
2.Posterior Side: sub lobes of R lobe: R lobe proper, Quadrate Lobe, Caudate lobe, L lobe proper
Liver: Blood Supply
2 sources:
1.Hepatic Artery->sinusoids->Hepatic veins
2.Hepatic Portal Vein->sinusoids->Hepatic veins
*arterial blood mixed with venous blood
basic unit of liver fxn:
liver lobule
Liver: Tissues Structure
1.central vein: in center of lobule
2.peripheral structures: Liver Triads, including a.hepatic artery branches b.hepatic portal vein branches c.interlobular bile ducts
Liver: Tissues Structure (cont)
3.liver sinusoids: connect branches of hep art & hep partal vein to central vein
4.hepatocytes: exist in flat plates; a.pressed up a/g sinusoids b. extend like wheel spokes from central vein to lobule edge c.find kupfer cells here (macrophages) d.act as bld cap
5.bile canaliculi
bile canaliculi:
dead end tubes; begin near central vein, cross lobule, fuse w/ interlobular bile ducts; flow from center to periphery; carry bile
Gall Bladder:
blind sac located in Quadrate lobe; fxn: store bile from liver
Gall Bladder: Associated Ducts
1.Hepatic Duct
2.Cystic Duct
3.Common Bile Duct
Hepatic Duct:
formed by the fusion of interlobular bile ducts; emerges from R side of liver
Cystic Duct:
emerges directly from gall bladder
Hepatic & Cystic duct fuse together to form:
common bile duct; duct of wirsung/pancreatic duct fuses w/ CBD & enters duodenum; bile released & pancreas secretions here
Liver: Fxns
1.Intermediary Metabolism
2.Storage
3.Synthesis of various compunds
4.Secretion
5.Excretion
Liver: Intermediary Metabolism
1.glycogenesis: glucose -> glycogen
2.glycogenolysis: glycogen-> glucose
3.gluconeogenesis: aa & fatty acids -> glucose (80% in liver & 20% in kidneys)
Liver: Storage
1.GLycogen: stored as glucose in reserve
2.Bile: prod in liver/stored in gall bladder
3.vitamins: fat soluble (ADEK) & water soluble (VitBcomplex & B12)
4.iron
Liver: Synthesis
1.plasma proteins:
2.bile:
3.heparin: blood anticoagulant
plasma proteins:
albumin, alpha globulins, beta 1&2 globulins, prothrombin, fibrinogen, other blood proteins involved w/ coagulation, angiotensinogen
bile:
composite of chem compounds: bile salts, cholesterol, bile pigments (synthesized form HB of dead RBCs), billrubin (pigment in bile that colors poop)
Liver: Secretion
1.bile salts: digestive rxns in bile
2.bile pigments: waste products (enter duodenum & flushed out w/ waste/fecal material)
Liver: Excretion
1.Kupfer cells:
2.excretion of bile pigments into feces
3.detoxification of harmful material to non-harmful materials & lost thru urine
4.produces urea thru pr catabolism & lost in urine
5.nucleic acids catabolism->uric acid-> lost in urine
*all help maintain homeostasis
Kupfer cells:
monitor blood coming thru sinusoids & macrophagic-like w/ old RBCs, bacteria, cell debris (phagocytosis)
Pancreas:
fish shaped organ
Pancreas: Location
head @ C portion of duodenum; tail extends to spleen
Pancreas: Duct of Wirsung
main duct of pancreas; fxn: deliver inactive digestive enzymes & chemicals: NaHCO3 to duodenum
Pancreas: Secretions
1.exocrine: comes from gland w/ duct
2.endocrine: released into blood directly, no duct involved
Pancreas: Exocrine Secretions
1.trysinogen 2.chymotripsinogen 3.carboxypeptidase 4.pancreatic amylase 5.pancreatic lipase 6.RNA-ase 7.DNA-ase 8.elastase
Pancreas: Endocrine Secretions
islet of langerhans; 2 cells: alpha cells make & secrete glucagon & beta cells make & secrete insulin
Physical & Chemical Dig: Mouth
1.Mastication
2.Starch Dig
3.Deglutition
Mouth: Mastication
chewing; breaks down food into smaller units -> mixed w/ saliva -> form clumps: bolus
Mouth: Starch Dig
starch (pH 7.0) in food -> mixed w/ salivary amylase -> form maltose (disacc)
Mouth: Deglutition
swallowing; physical aspect of digestion; different phases: form bolus -> sent to oropharynx ->pharyngeal musc in throat contract -> sends bolus into esophagus -> bolus moves to stomach by peristalsis
Physical & Chemical Dig: Stomach
1.Gastric Glands & secreted gastric juices
2.Smooth Musc Contractions
Stomach: Gastric Glands secrete gastric juices:
1.HCl-
2.Pepsinogen
3.Renin
HCl-
germicide-kills bac present in food; activates pepsinogen into pepsin for dig; gives stomach acidic pH (1-3) in order to allow pepsin to carry out dig
Pepsinogen
inactive form of pepsin
Renin
found in infants only, HCl takes over w/ age; curdles milk into semisolid material
Stomach: Smooth Musc Contractions
1.Trituration
2.Peristalsis
Stomach: Trituration
stomach musc in 3 layers & allow for churning mvmts: decrease physical size of food stuffs & mix food w/ fastric juices
Stomach: Peristalsis
moves contents of stomach (chyme)into small intestine
Small Int: Chem Dig
acidic chyme has entered duodenum &
1.alkaline juice from pancreas released
2.protein digestion
3.starch dig
4.lipid dig
5.succus entericus
alkaline juice from pancreas released:
into duodenum; contains inactive enzymes & NaHCO3; pH=8, so neutralizes acidic chyme; provides env for other enzymes
Small Int: Pr Dig
1.enteropeptidase: found on surface of villi in duodenum; trypsinogen -> in presence of enteropeptidase -> piece knocked off & trypsin formed

2.
Pr Dig rxns:
pr in chyme in small int, proteoses & peptone -> mix w/ trypsin, chymotrypsin, NaHCO3 (pH 8), & --> break down to smaller peptides
*pr not completely digested
Small Int: Starch Dig
starch -> NaHCO3, pancreatic amylase -> maltose
*starch not completely digested
Small Int: Lipid Dig
fats-> gall bladder secreted bile reacts w/ fat & emulsifies fat -> pancreatic lipase, in presence of NaHCO3 breaks down fat into fatty acids, glycerol & monoglycerides
*completely digested
Small Int: Succus Entericus
watery fluid from small intestinal glands & enzymes (extending off villi); enzymes include:
1.peptidases
2.carbohydrases
peptidases:
peptides-> mix w/ peptidases, NaHCO3 -> break down into aa*
*end product of pr dig
carbohydrases:
1.maltose -> mixed w/ maltase -> glucose
2.lactose -> mixed w/ lactase -> glucose & galactose
3.sucrose -> mixed w/ sucrase -> glucose & fructose
Small Int: mvmts
1.segmental contractions
2.Peristalsis
Small Int: Segmental Contractions
for mixing chyme in small int; region contracts & stops -> other adjacent regions contract ...
Small Int: Peristalsis
propulsive mvmt of chyme from small int to large int occurring in sequence; moving ring of contractions in spurts/ not constant
Chemical Dig in small int complete, and now:
Absorption
Small Int: Absorption
1.simple sugars, amino acids, 10-20% fatty acids/glycerol/monosacc. --> all absorbed into capillaries of villus (now in blood)
2. 80-90% fatty acids/glycerol/monosacc. enter villus & resynthesized into fat
resynthesized into fat:
fat attaches to pro (fat-pr complex: chylomicrons) -> absorbed into lacteals -> lymphatics -> into blood
Large Int:
gains indigestible wastes from small int: mainly cellulose & bacteria
Large Int: Muscular Mvmts
same exactly as small int: segmentation-> peristalsis -> moving wastes to rectum
Large Int: Water Absorption
along way, absorb water in ascending colon
Large Int: Vitamin Absorption
VitB complex & VitK reabsorbed here
Large Int: Defecation
elimination of solid wastes;
1.contents from sigmoid colon -> rectum & stretch receptors stimulated @ rectum
2.nerve impulses sent to spinal cord & from spinal cord motor impulses sent back to rectum: contraction of smooth musc & relaxation of int anal sphincter
3.abdominal musc contract & put pressure on rectum & poop