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33 Cards in this Set

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Integration of Levels of Organization in Organisms
All functions are harmonious
biomechanics, physics, morphology, nervous control, electrophysiology, biochemistry, etc.
Physiology is key to understanding:
-Biology of all animals
-Human health and disease
-Health/Disease of animals in human affairs
Mechanism vs Origin:
What is the mechanism behind a function, and how does the animal carry out their functions?
the components of actual, living animals and the interactinos among those components that enable the animals to perform as they do
Mechanism vs Origin:
How did a mechanism come to be, and why do modern-day animals posses the mechanisms that they do?
natural selection
the increase in frequency of genes that produce phenotypes that raise the likelihood that animals will survive and reproduce
key process of evolutionary origin; "tinkering"
physiological mechanism or other trait that is a product of evolution by natural selection
adaptive significance
the reason why a trait is an asset for the organism, why natural selection favored the evolution of that trait
MECHANISTIC approach to physiology
mechanisms by which animals perform life-sustaining functions at many levels
core of physiology
EVOLUTIONARY approach to physiology
evolutionary and adaptive signficance of physiological traits
COMPARATIVE approach to physiology
the ways in which diverse phylogenic groups of animals resemble each other and differ
ENVIRONMENTAL approach to physiology
the ways in which physiology and ecology interact, in present and during evolutionary time
atoms in an animal's body are in constant flux with the environment and are replaced continuously
iron in red blood cells (4 months), calcium in skeleton, proteins and fats (lose 2-3%/day)
why animals need to eat all of the time
-energy needed to combat entropy
-tissues continuously break down/rebuilt
-keep internal/external environments different
-energy for physiological responses
internal environment
set of conditions experienced by cells within an animal's body
temp, pH, ion concentration, etc.
external environment
conditions outside of the body
animal maintains internal constancy in the face of external variability
animal permits internal and external conditions to be equal
regulation: advantages
cells can function independently from environment
regulation: disadvantages
costs a lot of energy (twice as much as ecotherms)
conformity: advantages
energetically cheap
conformity: disadvantages
cells subject to change in condition depending on environment
ACUTE externally controlled physio. rates
short term, reversible changes in an individual
CHRONIC externally controlled physio. rates
long term, reversible changes in an individual
EVOLUTIONARY externally controlled physio. rates
long term changes in gene frequencies at the population level
a chronic response to a changed environment, only if the new environment differs from the preceeding environment in just a few highly defined ways
laboratory phenomenon
a chronic response of individuals to a changed environment, when the new and old environments are different NATURAL environments
winter/summer, high/low lattitudes
DEVELOPMENTAL internally controlled physio. rates
programmed changes in an individual as it matures and ages
BIOLOGICAL CLOCKS internally controlled physio. rates
repeating, cyclical changes in an individual
genetic, enzymatic
physiological/morphological traits are known to vary in systematic ways with body size in mammals and other phylogenetically related sets of animal species
all the chemical, physical, and biotic components of an organisms surroundings
three major conditions of Earth's environments
a meaure of the intensityof the random motion of molecules; determines rates of chem. rxns. and enzyme activity
temperature conformers (ectotherms) vs. latitude
temp. conformers decline toward poles due to seasonal environmental procedures
butterfly species decline at high latitudes b/c plants dec. in diversity/productivity toward poles (affecting food supply)