Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/76

Click to flip

76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The hypothalamus secretes
Releasing Hormones &
Release Inhibiting Hormones:
Hypothalamic hormones regulate secretion of
hormones from the anterior pituitary (glandular) cells
Hormones from the Anterior
Pituitary (AP) are released to
the systemic circulation
and are high regulated
Glandular Cells
Secrete
AP Hormones
Releasing Hormones: Hypothalamic Location and Anterior Pitiuary Target Cell

Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH, 3 aa)
HL: Paraventricular

TC:Thyrotroph, Lactotroph
Releasing Hormones: Hypothalamic Location and Anterior Pitiuary Target Cell

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH, 41 aa)
HL: Paraventricular

TC:Corticotroph
Releasing Hormones: Hypothalamic Location and Anterior Pitiuary Target Cell

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GNRH, 10 aa)
HL: Arcuate

TC:Gonadotroph
Releasing Hormones: Hypothalamic Location and Anterior Pitiuary Target Cell

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH, 49 aa)
HL: Arcuate

TC:Somatotroph
Release Inhibiting Hormones: Hypothalamic Location and Anterior Pitiuary Target Cell

Somatostatin (14 aa)
HL: Anterior, Periventricular

TC: Somatotroph, Lactotroph,
Thyrotroph, & Corticotroph
Release Inhibiting Hormones: Hypothalamic Location and Anterior Pitiuary Target Cell

Dopamine (Catacholamine)
HL: Arcuate

TC:Lactotroph,
Thyrotroph
Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion

Hypothalamic Hormone
CRH
GHRH
TRH
Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion: Anterior Pituitary Hormones
ACTH
GH
TSH
CRH complimentary partner in Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion
ACTH
GHRH complimentary partner in Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion
GH
TRH complimentary partner in Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion
TSH
In Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion

HH: CRH
APH: ACTH

will increase ____ and decrease ________
Increase:Ach, His
Decrease:GABA
In Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion

HH: GHRN
APH: GH
Increase:NE, DA, 5-HT
Decrease:GABA
In Neurotransmitter regulation of anterior pituitary hormone secretion

HH: TRH
APH: TSH
Increase:NE, His
Decrease:DA, 5-HT
Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Cell types: hormones are secreted from ?
epithelial (glandular) cells
% Population in Anterior Pituitary and the Hormones Secreted from Somatotroph
- 40-50

- Growth Hormone (GH)
% Population in Anterior Pituitary and the Hormones Secreted from Lactotroph
- 10-15
- Prolactin (Prl)
% Population in Anterior Pituitary and the Hormones Secreted from Gonadotroph
- 10-15

- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
and
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
% Population in Anterior Pituitary and the Hormones Secreted from Corticotroph
- 15-20
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
% Population in Anterior Pituitary and the Hormones Secreted from Thyrotroph
- 3-5

- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
% Population in Anterior Pituitary and the Hormones Secreted from Melanocyte
- 3-5

- Melanocyte Hormone (MSH)
Properties of Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

half lives in blood and structure: GH
HL: 30 mins

Structure: single chain
Properties of Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

half lives in blood and structure:PRL
HL: 30 mins
Structure: S-S bonds
Properties of Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

half lives in blood and structure:TSH
HL: 30 mins
Structure: Glycoprotein
2 subunits
Alpha and beta- TSH
Properties of Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

half lives in blood and structure: FSH
HL: 240 Mins
Structure: Alpha and beta- FSH
Properties of Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

half lives in blood and structure: LH
HL: 15 mins
Structure: Alpha and beta- LH
Properties of Anterior Pituitary Hormones:

half lives in blood and structure: ACTH
HL: 15 min

Structure: Cleavage Product of Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)
Overview Pituitary Hormones:

Hypothalamic releasing hormones:
GHRH(+)
Somatostatin (-)

What is the Anterior pituitary affected ~~> Target organ ~~> hormone produced
Anterior pituitary: GH

Target organ: Tissues (Liver)

Hormone produced: IGF-1
Overview Pituitary Hormones:

Hypothalamic releasing hormones:
TRH(+)

What is the Anterior pituitary affected ~~> Target organ ~~> hormone produced
Anterior pituitary: TSH

Target organ: Thyroid

Hormone produced: T4/T3
Overview Pituitary Hormones:

Hypothalamic releasing hormones:
CRH(+)

What is the Anterior pituitary affected ~~> Target organ ~~> hormone produced
Anterior pituitary: ACTH

Target organ: Adrenal

Hormone produced: Glucocorticoids
Overview Pituitary Hormones:

Hypothalamic releasing hormones:

GHRH(+) for the gonads

What is the Anterior pituitary affected ~~> Target organ ~~> hormone produced
Anterior pituitary:FSH and LH

Target organ: Gonads (Ovary/testes)

Hormone produced: Progesterone, Testosterone, and Estrogen
Overview Pituitary Hormones:

Hypothalamic releasing hormones:
Dopamine (-)

What is the Anterior pituitary affected ~~> Target organ ~~> hormone produced
Anterior pituitary:PRL

Target organ: Mammary Gland

Hormone produced: none
What is the physiological function part of the Overview of pituitary hormones
Hormones
Hypothalamic releasing/release inhibiting hormones receptors are
G-protein Coupled Receptors
which Anterior pituitary hormones are G-protein Coupled Receptors?Coupled Receptors
TSH, ACTH,FSH, LH
which Anterior pituitary hormones are Janus (JAK)-Kinase
GH, PRL
which Anterior pituitary hormones that are secreted from Target Tissues are Nuclear Receptors?
Thyroid, Adrenal Cortex, Gonads:
Which Anterior pituitary hormones that are secreted from Target Tissues are Tyrosine Kinase (intrinsic) Receptor
Liver (IGF1)
Anterior pituitary hormones
are secreted in a _______ fashion.
pulsatile

- on-off-on-off
The duration of the “on vs off” switch of the Anterior pituitary hormones is determined by
aminergic, peptidergic factors
and feedback regulatory
hormones
Anterior pituitary hormones
are secreted in a pulsatile fashion. If hormone degradation is constant, then changes in blood hormone levels are
due to changes in the rate of secretion.
Pulsatile secretion leads to
pulsatile changes in blood hormone levels
Pulsatile secretion of lutenizing hormone (LH) leads to pulsatile stimulation
of testosterone secretion

stimulates: Norepinephrine

Inhibits: Dopamine
LH targets the testes to stimulate
testosterone synthesis and secretion
Anterior pituitary hormones
are secreted in a ____ fashion:
cyclic
The pattern of secretion
in the cycles is determined by
aminergic, peptidergic factors and feedback systems.
Daily (circadian)
ACTH controls...?
cortisol Production from the adrenal cortex.
ACTH increases at the ?
sleep - awake transition
Cycle 2

Amplitude of the pituitary hormone secretion is determined by ?
frequency of pulsatile stimulation of the hypothalamic hormone
Cycle 2

The on-off of pulsatile secretion of the hypothalamic hormone becomes ?
more frequent
Growth hormone is secreted at
night
2 other types of cycles
- Reproductive Cycles:

Monthly
Menstrual cycle

Yearly
Estrus cycle
Seasonal Breeders


- Life Time

Growth Hormone
The Liver Is An _________ Gland
Endocrine
Composition of Bone: Physical
Inorganic material (mineral, Hydroxyapatite)

deposited on an organic (Osteoid) framework
Composition of Bone: Mineral
Mineral: Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
Composition of Bone:
Osteoid:
Organic Matrix:
type I collagen
proteoglycans
Growth hormone & IGF-1 stimulate
bone growth at the epiphyseal growth plate.
What are Osteoblast:
bone forming cells, synthesize type I collagen
and is involved in mineralization
What are Osteoclast:
bone loss (remodeling) cells: Macrophage-like dissolve mineral by secreting acid degrade collagen by
secreting proteases
What are Osteocytes:
osteoblast engulfed in osteoid nutrition for bone
Peak Growth Hormone
and IGF-1 secretion
correspond to ?
peak
growth velocity.
Growth hormone and IGF-1 act with other hormones to promote growth.
These hormones include:
thyroid hormones, glucocorticoids, sex steroids & insulin.
Growth requires ?
multiple hormones + good nutrition.
Biological Function of GH and IGF-1 Growth Hormone Receptors
Receptor:
JAK, Janus kinase or “Just Another Kinase”

extrinsic tyrosine kinase
Biological Function of GH and IGF-1 Growth Hormone Target tissues
Target Tissues
- Multiple
Liver, IGF-I
Muscle
Bone
Biological Function of GH and IGF-1 :Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 receptors
IGF-1 binding proteins

Receptor:
Intrinsic Tyrosine kinase
Biological Function of GH and IGF-1: Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Target Tissues:
-Multiple

-Promotes glucose utilization and protein synthesis
Feedback Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion: Stimulation/Feedforward:
Sleep ~~> GHRH ~~> Growth Hormone ~~> Insulin-like Growth Factor-1
Feedback Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion: Inhibition/Feedback:
Stress and Exercise
& Too much Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 ~~> Inhibits GH secretion at the somatotroph ~~> Stimulates somatostatin secretion
at the level of the hypothalamus ~~> Somatostatin inhibits GH secretion
Too Much Growth Hormone cause what in Juvenilles and aduls:
Juvenile: Gigantism

Adult: Acromegaly

- Bone thickening in the
face, hands and feet

- Increased muscle mass.
Metabolic disorders interferes with ?
insulin action
Too little Growth Hormone cause what?
A form of drawfism, short stature

Remedy: recombinant growth hormone
Developed by Genetech