Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/61

Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physiological role of the hypothalamus and pituitary:
- A master endocrine control system.

- Integrates external and internal signals to regulate the production of multiple hormones.
Neuroendocrinology is
The interaction of the nervous and endocrine systems.
Neuroendocrinology controls
- Maintenance of the Internal Environment
- Growth and Development
- Energy Production,
- Utilization and Storage
- Reproduction
Hypothalamic and Pituitary Secretory Cells.

Two Specialized Cell Types?
Neurosecectory and epithelial (glandular) cells
Hypothalamus intergrates
sensory information from other brain areas.
what external factors are integrated from the hypothalamus?
-Temperature,
-Light/Dark
-Fear/Anxiety
-Diet
what internal factors are integrated from the hypothalamus?
- Blood volume
- Blood osmolality
- Blood glucose
- Blood sodium
- Body temperature
- Body weight
What are Neurosecretory cells:
-cell bodies originate in the paraventricular (PVN), arcuate (AN) and supraoptic nuclei (SOP)
What do Neurosecretory cells do?
- One group of neurosecretory cells (anterior side) secretes hormones from the posterior pituitary (PP) into the circulation

- Another group (posterior side) of neurosecretory cells secretes hormones at the level of the median eminence that control production of hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary (AP).
Hormones secreted from the
posterior pituitary flow
into the
systemic circulation.
An extension of the hypothalamus is
Posterior Pituitary (PP)
Neural tissue: neurosecretory
cells terminate at the ?
posterior pituitary
The blood supply for the posterior pituitary comes from and flows to?
- Inferior hypophyseal artery

- Venous flow to the systemic
circulation
Anterior Pituiary is distinct from the
hypothalamus and the
posterior pituitary because
A very different cell type;
Glandular/epithelial cells are found in the Anterior pituitary
Neurosecretory cells
controlling the anterior pituitary
terminate at the
Median Eminence (ME).
Hormones secreted at the ME enter the _________ ________ _________ and flow to the
- local pituitary circulation

- anterior pituitary to control the hormone secretion.
Anterior Pituitary (AP) blood flow is supplied by and flows to
- Superior hypophyseal artery

- Venous flow to the circulation
2 Posterior Pituitary Hormones:
- Vasopressin
- Oxytocin
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Vasopressin and Oxytocin are
- Both hormones are peptides
(9-amino acids in length)
- synthesized and secreted from neurosecretory cells
neurosecretory cells originate in the
hypothalamus supraoptic (SOP) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei
Vasopressin Secretion is regulated by
higher level
neurons with osmoreceptors (osmolality) and
baroreceptors (blood pressure).
ADH is secreted directly into
the systemic
circulation
ADH producing cells
DO NOT make
oxytocin!!
Vasopressin (ADH) AKA:
- Arginine vasopressin
- AVP
or
- Anti-Diuretic Hormone,
- ADH
Factors stimulating secretion of vasopressin - 1:
-Blood volume: Blood loss, i.e., Hemorrhage

-Blood pressure reduction

-Blood osmolality: Increased osmolality (>290 mOsm)

- Stress
Target tissues of vasopressin 1:
-Kidney (V2R)

-Blood vessels (V1R)
of vasopressin Mechanism of action in the kidney:
-ADH binds the V2-receptor

-G-protein coupled receptor

-Increases cellular cAMP and activates PKA signaling
Physiological Function of Vasopressin-2:
Increases permeability of the kidney collecting duct to water

This is achieved by inserting aquaporins into the apical membrane of collecting duct cells. Aquaporins are water channels.
with Vasopressin-2, Instead of losing water by urination, water is
retained
[Anti-diuresis, to inhibit urination by decreasing urine formation]
Vasopressin acts with other hormones, [atrial natriuretic peptide (heart-atria) and aldosterone (a steroid, adrenal)] to control ...
blood volume and sodium concentration
Vasopressin Controls Whole Body...
Water and Mineral Balance
Vasopressin Controls Whole Body...
Water and Mineral Balance
Whole Body Water Balance:
Increase body water
Thirst, drinking

Thirst Center: Controlled by osmoreceptors
Responds to changes in blood osmolality, volume.
Whole Body Water Balance:
decreased body water
Decrease body water

Exhale, CO2 + H2O

Urination <~~ADH

Sweat

Feces
Whole Body Water Balance:
Increase body water
Thirst, drinking

Thirst Center: Controlled by osmoreceptors
Responds to changes in blood osmolality, volume.
Oxytocin is secreted into the ________ from ________.
systemic
circulation from neurosecretory cells
Whole Body Water Balance:
decreased body water
Decrease body water

Exhale, CO2 + H2O

Urination <~~ADH

Sweat

Feces
The cells secreting oxytocin
originate in the
paraventricular nucleus.
Oxytocin is secreted into the ________ from ________.
systemic
circulation from neurosecretory cells
Oxytocin secreting cells
DO NOT secrete
vasopressin!!
Oxytocin plays a major role in __________ physiology:
female
Mechanism of Action and Physiological Function of oxytocin:
Oxytocin binds G-protein coupled receptors

Increases cellular cAMP levels and activates PKA signaling.
At Birth..In the uterus, oxytocin stimulates
smooth muscle contraction to facilitate delivery of the newborn.
The cells secreting oxytocin
originate in the
paraventricular nucleus.
Oxytocin secreting cells
DO NOT secrete
vasopressin!!
Oxytocin 2 stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells to
facilitate delivery of milk to the newborn

Note: milk synthesis is stimulated by prolactin.
Oxytocin plays a major role in __________ physiology:
female
Mechanism of Action and Physiological Function of oxytocin:
Oxytocin binds G-protein coupled receptors

Increases cellular cAMP levels and activates PKA signaling.
At Birth..In the uterus, oxytocin stimulates
smooth muscle contraction to facilitate delivery of the newborn.
The hypothalamus secretes:
Releasing Hormones &
Release Inhibiting Hormones:
Hypothalamic hormones regulate secretion of hormones from
the anterior pituitary (glandular) cells.
Oxytocin 2 stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells to
facilitate delivery of milk to the newborn

Note: milk synthesis is stimulated by prolactin.
Hormones from the Anterior
Pituitary (AP) are released to the
systemic circulation
The hypothalamus secretes:
Releasing Hormones &
Release Inhibiting Hormones:
Hypothalamic Hormones are:
- Neurosecretory Cells
- Releasing hormone or
Releasing Inhibiting hormone is secreted into the local pituitary portal circulation; high concentration of hormone.
Hypothalamic hormones regulate secretion of hormones from
the anterior pituitary (glandular) cells.
Hormones from the Anterior
Pituitary (AP) are released to the
systemic circulation
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
are Secreted from and is regulated by
- glandular cells
- hypothalamic hormones
Hypothalamic Hormones are:
- Neurosecretory Cells
- Releasing hormone or
Releasing Inhibiting hormone is secreted into the local pituitary portal circulation; high concentration of hormone.
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
are Secreted from and is regulated by
- glandular cells
- hypothalamic hormones
Key Difference in Secretion of Anterior and Pituitary Hormones.
Anterior Pituitary (AP) Hormones
are secreted from glandular
(epithelial cells).

Secretion of AP hormones
is controlled by hormones
(releasing and release-inhibiting)
hormones secreted by
hypothalamic neurosecretory cells.

Posterior Pituitary Hormones
are secreted from
neurosecretory cells.