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57 Cards in this Set

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What are the three systems
Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine
What are the three common components for extra cellular communication
A Ligand

A receptor

and

A post receptor effect
What is a Ligand?
A small molecule that can be a neurotransmitter, antigen/antibody, or hormone
What are Receptors?
Proteins that bind the ligand during extracellular communication
What is a post-receptor effect?
Signal Transduction or cell signaling.

- A mechanism to trafer info to the cell
The post-receptor effect is initated by ___________ and leading to ________
ligand binding to the receptor,

reception activation
Receptor activation induces a change in
cell function
Endocrinology is the study of:
*The chemical nature of hormones, the mediators (1st messengers) of the endocrine system.

* Cells that produce hormones.

* Cells that respond to hormones (sites of action or Target Cells).
The physiological effects of hormones are at the .
At the molecular and cellular level

At the tissue level

At the whole body (or systemic) level
Role of the Endocrine System in Physiology
- growth and development

- Reproduction

- Energy production, utilization & storage

- Maintenance of the internal environment
Physiological Processes Are
Controlled by _______ Hormones
Multiple
Physiological Control of Blood Glucose
Involves ___________.
Multiple Hormones
What can elevate blood sugar?
Glucagon, Epinephrine, and growth hormone
What can lower blood sugar?
insulin and diet
Each Hormone Will Have __________.
Multiple Roles
Insulin Plays a Role In _________ & ___________
Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
Insulin stimulates
- Cellular uptake of glucose

- fatty acid synthesis and storage

- glucose storage as glycogen
7 components of the Endocrine System.
1. Hormones
2. Hormone producing cell (site of hormone synthesis and secretion)
3. Delivery System
4. Target cell
5. Receptor
6/ signal teansduction mechanism
7. Biological response
What are the variations of control in the endocrine system
Distal (systemic) Control and Local control
steps in distal control (endocrine system)
hormone synthesis enters circulation , hits receptor, starts biological response
Insulin Plays a Role In _________ & ___________
Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
Insulin stimulates
- Cellular uptake of glucose

- fatty acid synthesis and storage

- glucose storage as glycogen
The post-receptor effect is initated by ___________ and leading to ________
ligand binding to the receptor,

reception activation
Receptor activation induces a change in
cell function
7 components of the Endocrine System.
1. Hormones
2. Hormone producing cell (site of hormone synthesis and secretion)
3. Delivery System
4. Target cell
5. Receptor
6/ signal teansduction mechanism
7. Biological response
Endocrinology is the study of:
*The chemical nature of hormones, the mediators (1st messengers) of the endocrine system.

* Cells that produce hormones.

* Cells that respond to hormones (sites of action or Target Cells).
What are the variations of control in the endocrine system
Distal (systemic) Control and Local control
The physiological effects of hormones are at the .
At the molecular and cellular level

At the tissue level

At the whole body (or systemic) level
steps in distal control (endocrine system)
hormone synthesis enters circulation , hits receptor, starts biological response
Role of the Endocrine System in Physiology
- growth and development

- Reproduction

- Energy production, utilization & storage

- Maintenance of the internal environment
Two types of Local control
Autocrine and Paracrine
Local control systems are located in
- Pituitary
- pancreatic Islets
- Gonads
(Testes & Ovaries)
Hormones are produced _______ & _______ locally.
locally and act locally
What distinguishes endocrine control from paracrine or autocrine control?
-In local control, local blood hormone concentration > systemic

blood hormone concentration.
-Location of target cell relative to hormone producing cell.
2 Types of Hormones and Hormone Transport in Blood
Hydrophillic Hormones and Hydrophobic hormone
What are Hydrophilic Hormones?
- Proteins, peptides, catacholamines

- Transported in the circulation does not require interaction with other blood proteins
What are Hydrophobic Hormones (Lipid [Fat] Soluble)?
- Steroids and Thyroids

- Transported in the circulation
Requires proteins in the blood for transport
Plasma binding proteins
e.g., transcortin and thyroxine binding globulin
Solubility
Hormone binding to blood proteins delays uptake and degradation by the kidney and liver
Hydrophobic hormones require ?
proteins in the blood for transport

- Plasma binding proteins
(e.g., transcortin and thyroxine binding globulin
Solubility)
- Hormone binding to blood proteins delays uptake and degradation by the kidney and liver
two hydrophillic hormones?
Insulin (protein) and epinephrine (catacholamine)

- Half lives are less the 10 mins each
two hydrophobic hormones
T4 (throid) and Cortisol (steroid)

- T4 - longest lasting half life known to date
Hormone Production Rate
is _________ ___________.
Highly Regulated
Hormone production rate steps
1. production rate - synthesis and secretion of hormones into the blood

2. Hormone in the blood

3. Disposal rate - Hormone uptake by the cell. Degradation of the hormone
Feedback Regulation of Hormone Production
Excessive blood levels of Hormone B will have a
negative feedback effect on Hormone A production
negative Feedback Regulation of Hormone Production
will inhibit Hormone A secretion
Feed forward and feedback regulation of
hormone production is commonly seen
throughout _____ _______ _____.
the endocrine system
steps of Feed forward and feedback regulation
Sensory input and environment affects the hypothalamus in the brain, which affect the pituitary gland releasing hormones, which hit the target endocrine cell sending out systemic effects or just to the thyroid, adrenal, and gonads.

The target cell sends back signals for feedback inhibitaion of hormone secretion
Feedback does what
Inhibition of Hormone Secretion
Feed Forward does what?
Feed Forward Stimulates Hormone Secretion
2 Mechanisms for hormone removal from the plasma
- Binding hormones to receptors & internalization

- Degradation of catecholamines and hydrophobic hormones

Catecholamines:
- Methyl transfer
- Oxidation

Steroid & thyroid
- Liver & Kidney
- Oxidation, Sulfation, and Glucuronidation
Is hormone disposal regulated or unregulated
regulated
Endocrinopathy is often associated with either
too much or too little hormone production
Clinical endocrinologist can sort out endocrine
disorders by ??
measuring blood hormone levels.

In some cases, the endocrinologist will also
determine the cause of abnormal blood hormonal levels
what are 3 hydrophilic hormones?
Protein hormone, peptide hormones, and catacholamine
two Hydrophobic hormones
(Thyroxine) Thyroid and Cortisol (Steroid)
Hydrophobic hormones require ________ ________ ___ ____ ________ ____transport in the circulation.
specific proteins
in the blood for
Protein & Peptide Hormone Secretion is Regulated by
Hormones that Increase Intracellular Calcium
Protein & Peptide Hormone Secretion 8 steps
Happens in the nucleus:
1. Gene transcription
2. mRNA

Happens in the cell:
4. Translation
5. Post-translational processing
- preprohormone
- prohormone
-hormone

6. Hormone storage (secretory vesicle)

7. secretion

happens outside of cell

8. Delivered to the target cell