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35 Cards in this Set

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What subclass of organic molecule is enzyme?
Protein
State function of protein and which one of these function is enzyme's function.
Structure
Catalyst- this one
Antibody
Receptor
Carrier
Define catalyst.
1.Increase the rate of reaction.
2.Catalysts are not changed by reaction.
3.Does not change the nature of reaction. Just speeds it up.
What do you call something reactant have to overcome in order for the chemical reaction to proceed?
Activation energy
What is the thing that lower the activation energy required for a specific chemical reaction to occur?
Enzyme
What do you call the specific binding on enzyme reactant fit into?
Active sites
What do you call the substance that enzyme act on?
Substrate
When a substrate fit into enzyme, what do you call it?
Enzyme-substrate complex
At the end of enzyme reaction, what do you get?
Enzyme and products
(shape of enzyme has not been changed)
Although shape of enzyme does not change in the reaction, they do undergo slight structural change to accomodate substrates to fit in. What do you call the slight change?
Induced fit
What kind of suffic do most of enzymes have?
ase
State an exmaple of enzyme names that reflect activity.
Synthase
State an example of enzyme names that reflect substrate.
Lactate dehydrogenase (removes hydrogens from lactic acid)
Enzyme that catalyze the same reaction have the same name, but it may differ in a few amino acids. What do you call the the different model of the same enzyme?
Isoenzymes
What do you call the condition when enzyme activity is at maximum rate?
Optimal condition of activity
What is the pH optimum of pepsis? Why is it at the value?
pH 2.0, because pepsin works in the stomach where pH is 2.0, and stop working in S.I.
Only works in the stomach.
What is the pH optimum of salivary amylase and what does it do?
pH 7.0, because pH in side of mouth is about 6.7 pH. It digest carbohydrate.
What is the pH optimum of Trypsin and its function?
It breaks down protein that works in S.I. 8.00 pH, because pancreas secrete juce that makes pH of S.I. to basic.
Why does enzymes stop working when the temperature and pH goes out of optimum condition?
Because it denatures the shape of tertiary chemical structure, which change the function of enzyme.
What is conformational change?
Chemical structure change
Define Cofactors.
Metal ions such as Mg2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ that cause a conformational change in active site. If Substarates cannot fit in to active sites, reaction cannot proceed.
Define Coenzymes.
Derived from water soluable vitamines, and transport H+ and small molecules from one enzyme to another.
Different enzymes are activated at different locations, what kind of things activate enzymes?
Chemical change such as pH change.
Phosphorylation- Protein kinase adds phosphate group to the enzyme.
Ligand-second messenger systems example:cyclic AMP, which activate protein kinase.
Define second messengers.
Substance outside of cell carrying the message cannot get into the cell, intermediate called second messenger will carry the message into the cell.
What is the relation between reaction rate and substrate concentration?
Reaction rate will increase with increase in substrate concentration until enzyme is saturated.
Are some enzymatic reaction reversible? If so, give an example of a equation.
Yes.
H2CO3= H2O+CO2
Define endergonic reaction.
Requires energy to start the reaction.
Usually synthesis reaction.
Energy is absorbed in the product.
Define exergonic reaction.
Energy is released
Usually breakdown reaction.
State endergonic reaction involving ATP
ADP + Phosphate + energy to
ATP
State exergonic reaction involving ATP
ATP to ADP + Phasphate + energy to be utilized.
Define oxidation.
Lose electrons to be oxidized.
Define reduction.
Gain electrons to be reduced.
State reduction reaction involving NAD.
NAD + 2H --> NADH + H+
State oxidation reaction involving NAD.
NADH + H+ ----> NAD + 2H
State reduction reaction and oxidation reaction involving FAD.
Reduction
FAD + 2H ---> FADH2
Oxidation
FADH2---> FAD + 2H