Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/49

Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the somatic nervous system?
Voluntary motor system under conscious control.
What is the autonomic nervous system?
Involuntary system controlling and modulating the functions of visceral organs.
All preganglionic ANS neurons release which neurotransmitter?
ACh.
Postganglionic ANS neurons release which neurotransmitter(s)?
ACh or norepinephrine
What are the two main divisions of the ANS?
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
What is the name of the nervous system in the GI tract?
The enteric nervous system.
Where do the sympathetic preganglionic neurons originate from?
The thoracolumbar spinal cord.
From where do the parasympathetic neurons originate?
The brain stem and sacral spinal cord.
All postganglionic parasympathetic neurons release which neurotransmiter?
ACh
What type of receptors are present in the parasympathetic division targets, the smooth muscle and glands?
Muscarinic receptors.
What type of receptors are in the first synapse throughout the autonomic nervous system?
Nicotinic receptors.
What type of receptors are present in the sympathetic division targets smooth muscle and glands?
alpha 1,2 and beta 1,2
Which neurotransmitter is released in the second synapse at smooth muscle and glands in the sympathetic division?
Norepinephrine.
Which neurotransmitter is released in the second synapse at the sweat glands in the sympathetic division?
ACh
What type of receptor is present at the sweat glands in the sympathetic division?
Muscarinic receptors.
What do adrenergic neurons release?
Norepinephrine.
What is the substrate for adrenoreceptors?
Norepinephrine.
Can adrenoreceptors be activated by epinephrine?
Yes.
What do cholinergic neurons release?:
ACh.
What is the substrate for cholinoreceptors?
ACh.
What are the spinal segments from which the sympathetic preganglionic neurons originate?
T1 to L3.
What is the adrenal medulla?
A specialized sympathetic ganglion whose preganglionic neurons originate in the thoracic spinal cord (T5-T9).
What type of receptors are located on the adrenal medulla?
Nicotinic receptors.
What type of neuron synapses on the adrenal medulla?
Cholinergic neurons.
What type of neurotransmitters are released by the adrenal medulla?
80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine.
What are chromaffin cells?
The target cells on the adrenal medulla which release catecholamines into the general circulation.
What are catecholamines?
Norepinephrine and epinephrine.
What are the cranial nerves from which the parasympathetic division originates?
Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10.
From which sacral cord segments does the parasympathetic division originate?
S2 to S4.
Where are the ganglia of the parasympathetic division located?
Near, on or in the effector organs.
What happens to the pupil when the radial muscle of the iris contracts?
Dilation or mydriasis.
What happens to the pupil when the circular muscle of the iris contracts?
Constriction or miosis.
What type of sympathetic receptors does the heart have?
beta 1
What type of parasympathetic receptors does the heart have?
Muscarinic receptors.
What is the effect of stimulating the beta1 receptors of the heart?
Increased SA node (heart rate), AV nodal conduction, and contractility.
What type of sympathetic receptors are located in the bronchioles?
beta 2 - stimulation leads to dilation
Where in the vasculature are alpha 1 receptors located?
The skin, splanchnic circulation, and skeletal muscle.
What 2 sympathetic receptor types are located in the skeletal muscle?
alpha 1 and beta 2
What is the mechanism of action of alpha1 adrenoreceptors?
Increased Ca++ by coupling to DAG and IP3 - generally leads to contraction.
Where are alpha1 adrenoreceptors located?
1. vascular smooth muscle (skin, renal, splanchnic); 2. GI tract (sphincters); 3. bladder (sphincter); 4. radial muscle of iris.
Where are alpha2 receptors located?
1. GI tract (wall); 2. presynaptic adrenergic neurons.
What is the mechanism of action of alpha2 adrenoreceptors?
Inhibit adenylyl cyclase, decrease cAMP.
Where are beta1 receptors located?
1. heart; 2. salivary glands; 3. adipose tissue; 4. kidney.
Where are beta2 receptors located?
1. vascular smooth muscle of skeletal muscle; 2. GI tract (wall); 3. bladder (wall); 4. bronchioles.
What is the mechanism of action of beta1 and beta2 receptors?
stimulate adenylyl cyclase, increase cAMP.
Where are muscarinic cholinergic receptors located?
All PNS effector organs and the SNS sweat glands.
Where are nicotinic cholinergic receptors located?
Skeletal muscle (motor end plate); postganglionic neurons of the SNS and the PNS; adrenal medulla.
What is the mechanism of action of muscarinic receptors?
Increased Ca++ by coupling to DAG and IP3.
What is the mechanism of action of nicotinic receptors?
Opening of Na+ and K+ channels leading to depolarization.