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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A primary neurotransmitter that transmits impulses across the synaptic cleft
Action Potential
A rapid and substantial depolarization of the membrane of a neuron or muscle cell that is conducted through the cell
Afferent Division
The sensory division of the peripheral nervous system
Axon Hillock
a part of the neuron, between the cell body and the axon, that controls traffic down and the axon through summation of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
Axon Terminal
One of the numerous branched endings of an axon. Also known as a terminal fibril
Central Nervous System (CNS)
System consiting of the brain and spinal cord
A decrease in the electrical potential across a membrane, such as when the inside of a neuron becomes less negative relateve to the outside.
Efferent Division
The motor division of the peripheral nervous system
End Branches
Branches coming off the ends of the axons leading to the axon terminals
A specific, learned, and memorized motor pattern, stored in both the sensory and motor portions of the brain, that can be replayed on request
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
A deploarization of the postsynaptic membrane caused by an excitatory impulse.
Golgi Tendon Organ
A sensory receptor in a muscle tendon that monitors tension
Graded Potential
A localized change (depolarization or hyperpolarization) in the membrane potential
An increase in the electrical potential across a membrane
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
A hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane caused by an inhibitory impulse
Motor Division
The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system
Motor Reflex
An involunatary motor response to a given stimulus
Muscle Spindle
A sensory receptor located in the muscle that senses how much the muscle is stretched
Myelin Sheath
The outer covering of a myelinated nerve fiber, formed by a fatlike substance called myelin
Nerve Impulse
the electrical signal conduced along a neuron, which can be transmitted to another neuron or an end organ, such as a group of muscle fibers
Neuromuscular Junction
the site at which a motor neuron communicates with a muscle fiber
A specialized cell in the nervous system responsible for generating and transmitting nerve impulses
a chemical used for communication between a neuron and another cell
A catecholamine released from the adrenal medulla that, along with epinephrine, prepares the body for a flight or flight response. It is also a neurotransmitter
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
That section of the nervous system through whoch motor nerve impulses are transmitted from the brain and spinal cord to the periphery and sensory nerve impulses are transmitted from the periphery to the brain and spinal cord
Resting Membrane Potential (RMP)
The potential difference between the electrical charges inside a cell and outside the cell, caused by a separation of charges across the membrane
Saltatory Conduction
The means of rapid nerve impulse conduction along myelinated neurons
Sensory Division
the Afferent division of the PNS; sends impulses from the sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord
Sensory-Motor Integration
the process by which the sensory and motor systems communicate and coordinate with each other
Sodium-Potassium Pump
an enzyme called Na+-K+-ATPase, which maintains the resting membrane potential in disequilibrium at -70 mV
the summing of all individual changes in a neuron's membrane potential
the junction between two neurons
a minimum amount of stimulus needed to elecit a response. Also, the minimum depolarization required to produce and action potential in neurons