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49 Cards in this Set

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aldosterone
a steroid hormone released from the adrenal cortex that regulates the REABSORPTION of Na and SECRETION of K
angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary that regulates water REABSORPTION by the kidneys, also called vasopressin
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
hormone secreted from the atrium that regulates plasma Na levels
Bowman's capsule
in each nephron, a cup shaped structure that surrounds the glomerulus and conducts filtrate into the renal tubule at the inflow end of the renal tubules, site where filtrate enters renal tubules
calcitonin
peptide hormone released from C cells of the thyroid gland that regulates plasma calcium levels
calcitriol
steroid hormone derived from vitamin D that regulates plasma calcium levels
clearance
virtual measure of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed or cleared by the kidneys per unit time
collecting ducts
ducts that collect fluid from several different renal tubules and carry it to the renal pelvis for eventual elimination
cortex
outer portion of an organ such as cerebral cortex, adrenal cortex, and renal cortex
detrusor muscle
smooth muscle fibers of the bladder
distal convoluted tubule
portion of nephron furthest from renal corpuscle
excretion
elimination from the body through the kidneys (urine) or GI tract (feces)
external urethral sphincter
ring of skeletal muscle that regulates the excretion of urine
filtered load
quantity of a certain solute that is filtered at the glomerulus per unit time; equals the product of the GFR and the plasma concentration of the solute
glomerular filtration
bulk flow of protein-free plasma form the glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule
glomerular filtration pressure
sum of the Starling forces acting to move fluid across the capillary walls of the glomerulus
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
the volume of the plasma filtered per unit time from all renal glomeruli combined
glomerulus
in each nephron, a ball-like cluster of capillaries in the renal corpuscle; site of filtration
granular cells (juxtaglomerular cells)
specialized cells in the wall of the afferent and efferent arterioles that secrete renin; also called juxtaglomerular cells
internal urethral sphincter
ring of smooth muscle that regulates the excretion of urine
juxtaglomerular apparatus
a collection of specialized cells in the distal tubules and the afferent and efferent arterioles near where the three structures come together in the kidney; regulates glomerular filtration and renin secretion
loop of henle
the portion of the renal tubule that forms a hairpin loop that dips into the medulla, including the descending limb, the thin ascending limb, and the thick ascending limb
macula densa
specialized cluster of epithelial cells found in the distal convuluted in the region adjacent to the afferent and efferent arterioles
medulla
internal compartment of certain organs such as adrenal medulla and renal medulla
metabolic acidosis
decrease in the blood pH in response to changes other than CO2 levels
metabolic alkalosis
increase in blood pH in response to changes other than CO2 levels
micturition
elimination of urine from the body
myogenic regulation
means of autoregulating glomerular filtration rate by the inherent ability of smooth muscle of the afferent arterioles to contract when stretched
nephrons
functional units of the kidney that filter the blood and form urine, each consists of a renal corpuscle (a Bowman's capsule and a glomerulus) and a renal tubule
obligatory water loss
minimum volume of water that must be excreted in urine to eliminate solutes
osmoreceptor
receptors that detect the osmolarity of various body fluids
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
peptide hormone released from the parathyroid glands that regulates plasma Ca levels
peritubular capillaries
capillary bed that branches off the efferent arterioles of cortical nephrons and is located close to renal tubules; functions in exchange with renal tubules during reabsorption and secretion
proximal tubule
portion of the renal tubule nearest the renal corpuscle; includes promimal convoluted tubule and proximal straight tubule
reabsorption
transport of a substance into the blood
renal arteries
arteries that branch off the aorta and provide the kidneys with their blood supply
renal corpuscle
site of glomerular filtration; consists of glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
renal pelvis
funnel-shaped passage forming the initial portion of the ureter
renal threshold
the plasma concentration of solute at which the transport max is exceeded and excess solute appears in the urine
renal tubule
a portion of a nephron, consisting of a long, coiled tube
renal veins
transport of blood from the kidneys back into general circulation
renin
enzyme released by kidney; converts angiotensinogen I to angiotensinogen II
secretion
movement of substance from the internal environment to the external environment by transport across an epithelium; mvmt of a substance from inside a cell to outside the cell by mvmt across the plasma membrane
transport maximum (Tm)
rate of transport by carrier proteins when carriers are 100% saturated
tubuloglomerular feedback
autoregulatory mechanism in which a change in glomerular filtration rate is regulated by paracrines secreted from macula densa, located downstream from the glomerulus
urinary system
organ system that consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra
urine
a fluid produced by the kidneys and eliminated from the body
vasa recta
capillary bed that branches off the efferent arteriole of a juxtamedullary nephron and surrounds the loop of henle; functions in maintaining medullary osmotic gradient