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61 Cards in this Set

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What are these?

-inadequate dietary intake (e.g. – famine, poverty, alcoholism)
-inadequate absorption (e.g. – GI obstruction, pernicious anemia)
-increased requirements (e.g. – pregnancy, lactation)
-increased excretion (e.g. – kidney malfunction)
-drug-induced deficiency (e.g. – loss of microorganism synthesis due to antibiotics)
causes of vitamin deficiency
Water-soluble vitamins:
-include B-complex vitamins and vitamin __.
-absorbed along with water from the GI tract
-vitamin ___ must bind to intrinsic factor to be absorbed
-insignificant amounts of water-soluble vitamins are stored in the body and, unless used, they are excreted in the urine
C, B12
Fat soluble vitamins
-include vitamins _______
-bind to ingested lipids & are absorbed along with digestion products
-anything that interferes with fat absorption also interferes with the uptake of fat-soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
RDA is 1.5 mg/day – common dietary sources include red meats, eggs, greens, whole grains & seeds
thiamine (B1)
The coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate, the active form of thiamine (vitamin B1), participates in ______ metabolism through decarboxylation of a-keto acids. Deficiency causes ______ with peripheral neurologic, cerebral, cardiovascular, and GI manifestations.
carbohydrate, beriberi
Early deficiency produces fatigue, irritation, poor memory, sleep disturbances, precordial pain, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, and constipation.
Thiamine (B1)
____________________ is caused by inadequate intake of thiamine, particularly in people subsisting on highly polished rice. Milling removes the husk, which contains most of the thiamine, but boiling before husking disperses the vitamin throughout the grain, thus preventing its loss.

_________________ is caused by increased requirement, as in hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, lactation, and fever; impaired absorption, as in prolonged diarrheas; and impaired utilization, as in severe liver disease.
primary thiamine deficiency, secondary thiamine deficiency
RDA is 1.7 mg/day – common dietary sources include all types of meat, milk, eggs, greens, whole grains and apricots
Riboflavin (B2)
____________ as flavin mononucleotide or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), acts as an essential _______ in many oxidation-reduction reactions involved with carbohydrate metabolism. Deficiency results in oral, ocular, cutaneous, and genital lesions.
Riboflavin (B2), co-enzyme
Primary __________ deficiency is associated with inadequate consumption of milk and other animal products. Secondary deficiencies are most common in chronic diarrheas, liver disease, chronic alcoholism, and postoperative situations in which nutrient infusions lack supplementary vitamins.
riboflavin
Vitamin __ comprises a group of closely related compounds: pyridoxine (the most important), pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. They are metabolized and phosphorylated in the body to pyridoxal phosphate, which functions as a coenzyme in many reactions, including decarboxylation and transamination of amino acids, deamination of hydroxyamino acids and cysteine, conversion of tryptophan to niacin, and metabolism of fatty acids.
B6
The vitamin __ group is important in blood, CNS, and skin metabolism.
B6
________ is important in erythropoiesis because pyridoxal phosphate is needed in the formation of d-aminolevulinic acid, the rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis.
B6
Pyridoxine
vitamin B6
Cyanocobalamin
vitamin B12
RDA is 0.002 mg/day – common dietary sources include red meat, liver, shellfish, eggs & milk
B12
___________ helps maintain myelin sheaths of neurons and is important in the development of red blood cells.
Vitamin B12
Needed to make DNA.
vitamin B12, vitamin B9, and vitamin E
___________ combines with a substance called intrinsic factor (IF) in the duodenum before it can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Vitamin B12
________ is made by parietal cells in the stomach mucosa.
intrinsic factor
___ may increase your blood level of homocysteine, an amino acid normally found in your blood. There is evidence that an elevated blood level of homocysteine is an independent risk factor for heart disease & stroke.
Vitamin B12
evidence suggests that high levels of _________ may damage coronary arteries or make it easier for blood clotting cells called platelets to clump together and form a clot. However, there is currently no evidence available to suggest that lowering ___________ levels with vitamins will reduce your risk of heart disease.
homocysteine, homocysteine
_______________ results from a lack of IF in gastric secretions
Pernicious anemia
RDA is 0.2 mg/day – common dietary sources include eggs, liver, greens, citrus fruits & whole grains
folic acid (folate, B9)
vitamin B9 is also known as:
folic acid, folate
__________ acts as a coenzyme in the breakdown of proteins and in the synthesis of new proteins.
Folic acid
It is necessary for the production of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA, as well as tissue growth and cell function.
vitamin B9; folic acid
It increases the appetite and stimulates the formation of digestive acids.
vitamin B9
In ______ deficient anemia, the red cells are abnormally large and are referred to as megalocytes, and in the bone marrow as megaloblasts. Subsequently, this anemia may be referred to as megaloblastic anemia.
folate
Causes of the anemia are poor dietary intake of _______ as in chronic alcoholism, malabsorption diseases, and certain medications.
folic acid
Risk factors are a poor diet (seen frequently in the poor, the elderly, and in people who do not buy fresh fruits or vegetables), overcooking food, alcoholism, having a history of malabsorption diseases, and pregnancy.
folate deficiency anemia
RDA is 4-7 mg/day – common dietary sources include red meat, liver, eggs, green & yellow vegetables, whole grains and mushrooms
Pantothenic acid
____________ is a vitamin widely distributed in foodstuffs and is an essential component of coenzyme A, which functions as an acyltransfer cofactor for many enzymatic reactions.
Pantothenic acid
_____________ deficiency is rarely observed in humans.
Pantothenic acid
RDA is 19 mg/day
Synthesized from tryptophan, which is present in any diet with adequate protein
niacin
Severe deficiencies of niacin and tryptophan are the principal causes of __________ (a combination of dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia).
pellagra
RDA is 60 mg/day – common dietary sources include citrus fruits, tomatoes & greens
Vitamin C
Vitamin C is also known as
Ascorbic acid
________ is essential for collagen formation and helps maintain the integrity of substances of mesenchymal origin, such as connective tissue, osteoid tissue, and dentin.
Vitamin C
It is essential for wound healing and facilitates recovery from burns.
Vitamin C
Facilitates the absorption of iron.
Vitamin C
Severe ___________ deficiency results in ______, an acute or chronic disease characterized by hemorrhagic manifestations and abnormal osteoid and dentin formation.
vitamin C, scury
Three active forms: retinol, retinal and retinoic acid
vitamin A
RDA is 1.0 mg/day common dietary sources include dark green vegetables, orange-yellow vegetables, whole milk, butter, cheese, eggs
Vitamin A
All 3 forms are formed from the plant pigments known as carotenes (e.g. - b-carotene)
Vitamin A
Stored in the liver
Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K
Functions in vision and maintains the structure of the eyes
Vitamin A
Deficiency results in night blindness, decreased keratinization of skin & mucous membranes & a lack of bone remodeling
Vitamin A
Functions in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the small intestine
Vitamin D
Can be produced from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin by the action of UV light (more on this in the endocrine lectures)
Vitamin D
RDA is 0.01 mg/day excellent sources are dairy products
Vitamin D
Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D
Deficiency results in poor growth & lack of normal bone formation in children (______)a softening of bone in adults called _________, poor tooth development. Deficiency results in symptoms similar to a lack of calcium
Vitamin D, rickets, osteomalacia
RDA is 10 mg/day -- widely available in human diet (vegetable oils and wheat germ are particularly good sources)
Vitamin E
Functions include:
-anti-oxidant to inactivate free radicals
-stabilizes cell membranes
-required for normal RBC synthesis
-required for normal DNA and RNA synthesis
Vitamin E
does not:
-lower LDL
-decrease hot flashes
-decrease risk of bladder cancer
-prevent heart attacks
-restore sexual potency
-improve athletic ability
Vitamin E
RDA is 0.08 mg/day – common dietary sources include green leafy vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower; also normally produced by the intestinal flora
Vitamin K
Stored in liver & spleen
Vitamin K
Required for the synthesis of 4 blood clotting factors by hepatocytes: factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X
Vitamin K
Absorption requires normal biliary and pancreatic function – people suffering from disorders that slow absorption of lipids often experience uncontrolled bleeding as a consequence of Vitamin __ deficiency
Vitamin K
The anti-coagulant warfarin (Coumadin) acts an antagonist to _________, thereby blocking synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX and X
Vitamin K