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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two types of paralysis:
spastic and flaccid
Damage to primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, and indirect pathways is often called:
Upper motor-neuron lesion
Upper motor-neuron lesion characteristics:
•spastic paralysis (due to damage to indirect pathways)
•absence of muscle wasting (due to damage to indirect pathways)
•maintenance of muscle tone
•exaggeration of some tendon reflexes (due to damage to indirect pathways)
•development of pathological reflexes (e.g. – Babinski sign – due to damage to corticospinal tracts)
Damage to the LMNs or spinals nerves is called a
lower motor-neuron lesion.
lower motor-neuron lesion characteristics:
•flaccid paralysis
•muscle wasting / loss of muscle bulk
•loss of muscle tone
•weakness or even absence of many tendon reflexes
Respiration ceases if lesion occurs above the segmental origin of:
phrenic nerves C3,C4,C5
High cervical cord transection results in:
quadriplegia; between C5 and C6
Injuries below spinal nerve pair ________ allow people to retain full innervationof upper extremity.
T1, paraplegic
What makes up the brainstem:
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
What are the three broad functions of the brainstem:
1)conduit for ascending and descending tracts connecting SC to different parts of brain
2)contains reflex nuclei (vital centers) associated with control of respiration, heart rate, BP
3)contains important nuclei of CN III through XII
The name of important reflex nuclei in the brainstem that are associated with the control of respiration, HR, BP
vital centers
it resembles a net that is made up of millions of neurons. The net extends up through the cervical region of the spinal cord to the cerebrum
reticular formation
The _____________receives input from most of the ascending sensory pathways, vital centers and cranial nerve nuclei in the brainstem. It also sends output to most of the descending motor pathways, vital centers and cranial nerve nuclei.
reticular formation
The reticular formation can influence:
•Skeletal muscle activity
•Somatic and visceral sensations
•ANS functions
•Biological rhythms
Pathological lesions of this can result in loss of consciousness and even coma
reticular formation
the cerebral hemispheres are seperated by:
longitudinal cerebral fissure
longitudinal cerebral fissure contains what structure
falx cerebri
this connects the cerebral hemispheres across the midline
corpus collosum
this seperates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum
tentorium cerebelli
the folds in the cerebral hemisphere
gyri are seperated from each other by
sulci or fissures
frontal eye field, the primary motor area, premotor area, and supplemental motor area are located here
frontal lobe
motor speech area in left frontal hemisphere
Broca's area
Broca's area is involved with:
formation of words by its connections w/ adjacent motor areas: larynxy, mouth, tongue, soft palate, resp muscles
Lesions in Broca's area results in:
loss of ability to produce speech; expressive aphasia, they can understand the meaning of speech
This is concerned with the makeup of an individual's personality
prefrontal cortex exerts strong influence in determining initiative and judgment
primary somatosensory area is located here
parietal lobe
location of primary and secondary visual area
occipital lobe
location of primary and secondary auditory area
temporal lobe
Wernicke's area is located here
left temporal lobe
this area permits interpretation of sounds and for the association of the auditory input with other sensory info
secondary auditory area
this area permits understanding of written and spoken language and enables a person to read a sentence, understand it, and say it out loud
Wernicke's area
Lesion of Wernicke's area results in:
receptive aphasia; can produce speech but doesn't understand it
first, second, and third order neurons are part of:
Sensory (ascending/afferent) pathways
The thalamus forms the major part of the :
where is the thalamus located?
on each side of the third ventricle
the thalamus serves as a relay station to all main sensory organs except:
Regarded as a station where a great deal of info is integrated and relayed to cerebral cortex and other subcortical areas
what are the two general pathways that somatic sensory signals enter SC and go to cerebral cortex
1)posterior (dorsal) column-medial lemniscus
2) anterolateral (spinothalmic) system
Where does post. column-medial lemniscus decussate?
what are the two parts of the posterior (dorsal) column medial lemniscus?
fasciculus gracilis and fasculus cuneatus
What senses are carried by the posterior (dorsal) column-medial lemniscus?
discriminitive touch, stereognosis, proprioception, weight distribution, vibratory sensations
The fasciculus gracilis receives input from:
trunk, lower limbs
The fasciculus cuneatus receives sensory input from:
neck, upper limbs, chest
What senses are carried by the anterior spinothalmic tract:
crude touch, tickle, pressure, itch
What senses are carried by the lateral spinothalamic pathway:
pain and temp
What area of the brain is thought to play a role in accurate perception of sensations?
somatosensory association area
the two major routes for subconscious proprioceptive input to reach the cerebellum
posterior spinocerebellar tract and the anterior spinocerebellar tract
the cuneocerebellar tract and rostral spinocerebellar tract transmit nerve impulses from proprioceptors of the
trunk and limbs
destruction of the anterolateral spinothalmic tracts produce ____________ loss of sensation
where do the anterolateral spinothalmic tracts decussate?
spinal cord
destruction of the post (dorsal) column-medial lemniscus results in _________ loss of sensation
What fibers carry pain signals?
fast conducting A-delta and slower conducting C fibers
what is the pain specificity theory?
more tissue damage, then more pain
What is the pain pattern theory?
more intense the stimulus, then more pain
where is the "neural gate" for pain located
spinal cord
what is the order of the pain gate theory
1) gate opened by activity of A-delta and C fibers
2)closed by activity of A-alpha, A-beta fibers
3)opened or closed by "brain signals"
What are examples of cutaneous stimulation in pain reduction:
TENS, acupuncture, heat or cold, massage
what are two pharmacologic interventions of pain
1)narcotics that bind to opiate receptors
2)NSAIDS that suppress chemical mediators of inflammation (bradykinin, protaglandins)
where is the primary motor area or primary motor cortex found?
precentral gyrus
in the descending tracts in the medulla oblongata, axon bundles form ventral bulges called
where do lateral corticospinal tracts decussate?
what do lateral corticospinal tracts innervate
hands and feet
where do anterior corticospinal tracts decussate?
spinal cord
what do anterior corticospinal tracts innervate?
neck and trunk
the lower motor neurons of the _____________ connect to cranial nerves that convey impulses that control precise, voluntary movements of eyes, tongue, and neck plus chewing, facial expression and speech
corticobulbar tracts
the corticobulbar tracts terminate in the nuclei of:
nine pairs of cranial nerves (3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12)
these pathways include all descending tracts other than the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts
indirect (extrapyramidal) pathways
these two structures modify movement on a minute to minute basis
basal ganglia and cerebellum
the output of the cerebellum is excitatory or inhibitory
the output of the basal ganglia are excitatory or inhibitory
a collection of cell bodies outside of the CNS
a collection of nuclei deep to the cerebral cortex
basal ganglia
the names of the six nuclei of the basal ganglia
1)caudate or caudate nucleaus, 2)putamen, 3)nucleaus accumbens, 4)globus pallidus, 5)substantia nigra, 6)subthalamic nucleus
1)caudate or caudate nucleaus, 2)putamen, 3)nucleaus accumbens, 4)globus pallidus, 5)substantia nigra, 6)subthalamic nucleus are part of what
basal ganglia
what two structures are considered the "doorway to the basal ganglia"
caudate and putamen because they receive most of their input from the cerebral cortex
what are the two parts of the substantia nigra
substantia nigra pars compacta and substantia nigra pars reticulata
receives input from the caudate and putamen, and sends information right back
substantia nigra pars compacta
receives input from the caudate and putamen, but sends it outside the basal ganglia to control head and eye movements.
substantia nigra pars reticulata
the more famous of the two, as it produces dopamine, which is critical for normal movement.
substantia nigra pars compacta
this degenerates in Parkinson's
substantia nigra pars compacta
The ________ _________can also be divided into two parts: the _____ _____externa and the _____ _______interna. Both receive input from the caudate and putamen, and both are in communication with the subthalamic nucleus. It is the interna, however, that sends the major inhibitory output from the basal ganglia back to thalamus. The interna also sends a few projections to the midbrain, presumably to assist in postural control.
globus pallidus
what are the main neurotransmitters in the basal ganglia?
Ach, GABA, dopamine
The following are characteristic signs and symptoms associated with Parkinson's Disease:
Tremor: A result of alternating contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles. Tremor is most apparent within the limbs (exhibited to a greater extent within distal areas) and the jaw and generally oscillates at a frequency around 3-5 cycles/second. Tremor is most obvious while limbs are at rest and will disappear during sleep.

Rigidity: Parkinsonian rigidity affects both agonist and antagonist muscles equally. During periods of tremor absence, rigidity is felt as a resistance to passive movements and is sometimes referred to as plastic rigidity. When tremor is present, muscle resistance is overcome by a series of ratchet-like 'jerks' termed 'cogwheel rigidity'.

Bradykinesia: This is a term describing the slowing down and loss of automatic movement and the increased difficulty in movement initiation. The patient's face is expressionless (known as 'masked face'), the voice becomes slurred and monotone, and normal arm swinging associated with walking is frequently and noticeably absent.

Postural Instability: A parkinsonian patient will exhibit impaired balance and coordination resulting in a backward or forward lean. The patient will maintain a stooped posture and walk by taking short steps and is often unable to stop. In fact, a patient may break into a shuffling run to prevent falling over entirely.
a hereditary disease of unwanted movements that results from degeneration of caudate and putamen and produces dance-like movements
Huntington's Disease
Flailing movements of one arm and leg caused by damage to the opposite subthalamic nucleaus
the cerebellum works contrallaterally or ipsilatteraly?
What are the four aspects of cerebellar function:
•Monitoring intentions -- The cerebellum receives input from the motor cortex and basal ganglia via the pontine nuclei in the pons regarding what movements are planned.
•Monitoring actual movements -- It receives input from proprioceptors in joints and muscles that reveals what actually is happening. These nerve impulses travel in the cuneocerebellar and posterior spinocerebellar tracts. The vestibulocerebellar tract transmits impulses from the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear to the cerebellum. Nerve impulses from the eyes also enter the cerebellum.
•Comparing -- It compares the command signals (intentions for movement) with sensory information (actual performance).
•Providing corrective feedback -- It sends out corrective signals, both to nuclei of the brainstem and to the motor cortex via the thalamus
hallmark of cerebellar trauma or disease
ataxia; jerky or uncoordinated movements
shaking that occurs during deliberate voluntary movement that results from cerebellar damage, can be seen in chronic alcoholics
intention tremor
The most important factor in forcing the blood through the brain is the arterial blood pressure. This is opposed by such factors as:
-raised ICP
-blood viscosity
-narrowing of vessel diameter
Vascular lesions of the brain are extremely common and the resulting neurological defect(s) will depend upon:
- the size of the artery occluded
- the state of any collateral circulation
- the area of the brain involved
name of bulges in Circle of Willis that usually occur at the right angles
Berry (saccular) aneurysms