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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cranial nerve damage can result from:
blows to head, skull fractures, compression, deep lacerations to face
the loss of smell
olfactory nerves arise from ___ ______ _______ located in the ________ ________ of the nasal cavity and pass through ________ of the _______ bone.
olfactory receptor cells, olfactory epithelium, cribriform plate, ethmoid
Fibers of the olfactory bulb neurons extend posteriorly as the ______ ______ which run beneath the frontal lobe to enter the cerebral hemispheres and terminate in the _____ ________ _______ of the cerebrum.
olfactory tracts, primary olfactory cortex
Optic fibers arise from the ____ _____ of the retina of the eye to form the optic nerve which passes through optic foramen.
optic disc
Optic nerves converge to form the _____ _______ where partial crossover of fibers occur and continue on as _____ _____ and enter the _______ ________ _______ of the thalamus and syapse there.
optic chiasma, optic tracts, lateral geniculate bodies
Nerve fibers (optic tracts) are called _____ _______ and exit the _______ and continue to the _______ ________ ______ of the occiptal lobe, where visual interpretation occurs.
optic radiations, thalamus, primary motor cortex
Vision and field are determined with the _____ eye chart and by testing the point at which the person first sees an object moving in the visual field.
The _______ of the eye should be viewed with an opthalmoscope to detect ___________ (swelling of the optic disc due to increased intracranial pressure ICP)
fundus, papiledema
visual defects are called
a complete section of one optic nerve results in
total blindness of one eye
What results from a lesion of the optic chiasm? Commonly caused by a tumor of the pituitary gland exerting pressure on the optic chiasm.
bitemporal hemianopsia "tunnel vision"
What occurs if right optic tract is damaged.
Left homonymous hemianopsia, left periphery and right nasal are lost. XO XO
What occurs if left optic tract is damaged.
Right homonymous heminopsia. Right periphery and left nasal are lost. OX OX
Caused by sustained increase in CSF pressure on subarachnoid space surrounding optic nerve, which compresses central (retinal) vein and impedes return of venous blood from the retina. Can also be caused by incrased ICP.
What's innervated by oculomotor?
inferior rectus, medial recuts, superior rectus, inferior oblique, levator palpebrae superioris
Oculomotor: PNS motor fibers to ________ muscles of iris contrict the pupil and to the _______ muscles control the shape of the lens for visual focusing (i.e.: ________ )
constrictor, ciliary, accommodation reflex
Constriction of the pupil upon which light is shone:
direct light reflex
The constriction of the opposite pupil even though no light falls upon the eye is called:
consensual light reflex
Complete lesion of the oculomotor nerve causes _____________ and the eye rotates _____________
external strabismus, laterally
Upper eyelid droop due to paralysis of the levator palpebrae superioris
Double vision is called _______ and occurs because the ________ reflex is absent.
diplopia, accommodation
The conditions most commonly affecting the oculomotor nerves are:
diabetes mellitus, aneurysms, tumors, trauma to bony orbit, inflammation, vascular disease
Lesion of this nerves can produce difficulty in turning the eye downward and laterally (down and out)
trochlear, superior oblique
Lesion of this nerve can cause internal strabismus:
abducens VI, LR6, lateral rectus
What is damaged if patient complains of diplopia when looking straight down.
What passes through foramen rotundum?
V2, maxillary division of trigeminal
What passes through foramen ovale
V3, mandibular division of trigeminal
Caused by inflammation of trigeminal nerve of unknown cause and is widely considered to produce the most excrutiating pain known:
Tic douloureux or trigeminal neuralgia
Innervates muscles of facial expression:
Facial VII
Innervates muscles of mastication:
Conveys sensory impulses from taste buds of anterior 2/3 of tongue:
Facial VII
The five major branches of the facial nerve:
temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
Transmits PNS motor impulses to lacrimal (tear) glands and submandibular and sublingual salivary glands:
Facial VII
Characterized by paralysis of facial muscles on affected side and partial loss of taste sensation.
Bell's Palsy
Lesions to the ________ branch can produce dizziness, vertigo, and nausea and lesions to the _______ branch can produce deafness and tinnitus.
vestibular, cochlear
Sensory taste for post 1/3 of tongue:
glossopharyngeal IX
provides PNS fibers to parotid salivary gland (motor), chemoreceptors (sensory) and baroreceptors (sensory)
glossopharyngeal IX
Mixed nerves, nearly all motor fibers are parasympathetic:
Vagus, X
Nerve paralysis can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice
Vagus, X
Innervates nearly all muscles of the larynx
Laryngeal branches of Vagus, X
What muscles are innervated by the Hypoglossal XII?
styloglossus, hypglossus, genioglossus
What happens if both sides of hypoglossal are damaged:
Person cannot stick out tongue.
What is damaged if tongue is deviated to the side.
Hypoglossal XII