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123 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 2 sensory system divisions?
1. General
2. Special Senses
What are the general senses?
Touch, temp, pressure and pain
What are the special senses?
Hearing, balance, sight, smell and taste
Which category of senses are related to how we communicate with nature?
Special senses
Sclera is what part of the eye?
Outer layer
Cornea is what part of the eye?
Front layer (lens)
The 2nd layer of the eye - all active parts of the eye fall here - middle layer - blood supply is here
Coroid
The iris cilliary body and coroid - entire tunic of the eye
Uvea
The entire middle layer (tunic) of the eye
Uvea
What does the middle layer of the eye have in order to see light?
Color
Inflammation of part or all of the middle tunic
Uveitis
Inflammation of the iris or cilliary body
Anterior uveitis
Inflammation of the choroid
Posterior uveitis
A convex lense will do what to light rays?
Converge
A concave lense will do what to light rays?
Diverge
Refers to the bending the light rays as a beam of light passes thru a curved lense or passes from a mediium of one density to a medium of a 2nd density
Light refraction
What is the sum for Air RI (Refraction Index)?
1
What is the sum for Glass RI?
1.44
What is the sum for Water RI?
1.33
Concave lenses cause light rays to ___
Diverge (away)
Convex lenses cause light rays to ---
Converge (together)
What does 20/20 vision mean?
The patient has an eye that can clearly see objects at 20ft
A patient that has an eye rated @ 20/100 sees at 20 feet what a person with normal would see @ ---
100 feet
Ability to distinguish between forms
Visual acuity
What is measured grossly at 20 feet by the Snellen chart?
Visual acuity
Term for when Parallel rays from 20 feet or more away when passing through a convex lens will come to a point
Focal point
Term for the strength of a lense
Diopter
Term for distance from the lense to the point
Focal length
The amount of converging power of a convex lense is expressed in ---
diopters
What is the reference length used for expressing diopters?
Meter
A convex lense with a strengh of 1 diopter has focal length of ---
1 meter
A lens that has a focal length of 1 meter has a strenght of
1 diopter
If the focal length is 2 meters the strengh is ---
1/2 diopter
If the focal length is 1/2 meter the strength is
2 diopters
If we stick a concave lens in front of a 1 diopter convex lense and the concave lens completely negates the effect of the 1 diopter convex lens, we say that the concave lens has a strength of ...
negative 1 diopter
What type of a lense does not have a focal length?
Concave lense
A lens ___ light because it is ---
refracts
curved
The human eye has a strengh of about---
60 diopters
Most of the refraction of the eye is done by the ...
cornea
The cornea is very curved and has a RI of ---
1.33
The cornea's RI is the same as --- RI.
Water's
The len's job is accomodation. What is accomodation?
Fine tuning
What is fine tuning?
Changing it's focal length to bring objects into sharper image
Anything closer than --- where light rays aren't parallel is fine tuning
20 feet
Name for the chemical in the retina that decomposes when light hits the cell
Rhodopsin
What is composed of a protein called scotopsin and a form of vitamin A?
Rhodopsin
The retinal is in the form of --- cis retinal which is transformed into --- retinal by ---
cis
trans
light
Adequate amounts of vitamin A are required for the conversion of ___ back to the ___ form of vitamin A to allow the process to repeat itself
trans
cis
Rhodopsin contains --- and --- changes forms
Retinal
Retinal
The 2 types of light sensing cells in the eye are rods which are ___ sensitive but ___ insensitve
light
color
Rods are located towards the --- of the retina
periphery
Cones are located toward the --- of the retina
center
The cones is --- sensitive to light
less
What colors does the cons detect?
red, green and blue
What happens when 1 or more types of cones are missing or defective?
Color blindness
Adjustment of the refractory power of the lens
Accomodation
What is the function that takes place when the cilliary body alters the shape of the lens, allowing it to become more convex which changes it's strength?
Accomodation
The smaller the opeing the sharper the image is know as what?
Pupillary constriction
Term for when things are getting closer the lens gets convex - the eyes turn inward as things get closer
Convergence
Lack of convergence leads to what problem?
Double vision
What does one have when we are looking at an object with 2 separate sense organs?
Binocular vision
The normal pressure of aqueous humor is what range of mercury?
20-25 mm
Too much aqueous humor results in...
Glaucoma
Term for normal refracting of the eye
Emmetropia
Term for light rays that are converging behind the retina and a convex lense is needed to correct it
Hypertropia or farsightedness
Term for light rays that are converging in front of the retina and concave lenses are needed to correct it
Myopia or nearsightedness
Term for unequal curvature of the refractive surface and the rays of light cannot be brought to a fixed point but rather over a more diffuse area ( focal points are all over the place )
Astigmatism
Term for when elasticity is not what it once was - old fart's eye
Presbyopia
What does it mean if lights appear to have a halo over them at night>
Hallmark of glaucoma
What lies in the temporal bone?
Inner ear
What is known as the bony labyrinth of the ear?
The cavernous system
What are the 3 boney canals of the ear>
1. Semicircular canal
2. Vestibule
3. Cochlea
What does the cochlea resemble?
A snail
What connects the semicircular canal?
The vestibule
What 2 things sit inside the vestibule and are associated with balance?
The utricle and the saccule
Appearance of the cochlear duct
Swirly
Endolymph is found where?
Inside the membrane
Perilymph is found where?
Outside the membrane
Fluid inside the membrane
Endolymph
Fluid inside the cave that surronds the outside membrane
Perilymph
What connects to the stapis?
The oval window
What is at the opposite end of the cochlear duct?
The round window
What contains the auditory receptor cells which are called hair cells because of their appearance?
The organ of Corti
What stimulates the beginning of the receptor system?
High pitch
What stimulates the end of the receptor system covering the whole lengh of the organ of Corti?
Low pitch
What type of canal responds to rotation?
Semi circular canal
What term describes acceleration in relation to eye movement>?
Utricle
What term describes deceleration in relation to eye movement?
Saccule
Can the body detect constant movement?
No
What term refers to high or low quality of sound?
Pitch
Pitch is measured in --- per second?
cycles
The human ear can detect the range of --- to --- cycles per second but hears most accurately between --- and --- cycles per second
30 to 20,000
500 and 4,000
Various pitches are detected by various areas found in the...
organ of Corti
The higher the pitch, the --- the distance
shorter
Loudness if measured by the --- of the vibrations
amplitude
Loudness is detected by the organ of Corti by the number of ---- stimulated at one time vs the location of --- stimulated the pitch component of sound
hair cells
Loudness equals the number of --- stimulated
hair cells
Pitch is located where?
Organ of corti
Neurons that detect odor are located where?
at the very top of the nose
Decreased ability to smell
Hyposmia
Total lack of ability to smell
Anosmia
4 types of taste buds that science has identified
sweet, sour, bitter and salty
What taste buds are found on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?
Salt and sweet
What is the cranial nerve for the anterior 2/3 tast receptors?
CN 7 - facial nerve
What taste buds are associated with the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
Bitter and sour
What cranial nerve is associated with the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?
CN 9 - glossal pharyngeal
We taste with the back of the the throat and the epiglottis by way of CN ---
CN 10 - vegus nerve
The sense receptors for smell are ---
neurons
The sense receptors for taste are ---
not neurons
How many cranial nerves?
12
How do you remember the 12?
On old olympus' towering top a fin and german viewed a hops
CNI
Olfactory
CNII
Optic
CNIII
Oculomotor
CNIV
Trochlear
CNV
Trigeminal
CNVI
Abduces
CNVII
Facial
CNVIII
Acoustic
CNIX
Glosso pharyngeal
CNX
Vegus
CNXI
Accesory
CNXII
Hypoglossal