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42 Cards in this Set

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What is the name of the enzyme that is elevated in the blood of persons with muscular dystrophy or who have experienced a recent myocardial infarction?
"isoenzymes" : Creatine Kinase (Creatine Phosphokinase CPK)
What is CPK, and what is its function?
Creatine Phosphokinase
transfers phosphates between creatine and ATP
Where is CPK normally located, and what could an elevated blood level indicate?
in the skeletal, cardiac, and brain cells
elevated CPK of skeletal muscle=muscular dystrophy, if CPK of cardiac muscles is elevated it could mean a MYoCARDIAL iNFArCTIOn.
overall it means a rupture in the cells
Which metabolic pathway, starting with which molecule, produces lactic acid?
anaerobic: lactic acid fermentation. (and glycolysis)
glucose.
If Rachel used a much lighter resistance (weight) and could continue this exercise for a few more minutes without muscle fatigue, which metabolic pathway and which energy molecules would her muscle use to make ATP?
aerobic respiration
fatty acids
Which type of muscle fiber did the leg-lift machine mostly exercise when Rachel felt the muscle fatigue?
fast-twitch (type 2) fibers
If Rachel performed this exercise with a lighter resistance (weight) that didn’t cause muscle fatigue, which muscle fiber type would be mostly involved in this exercise?
slow twitch (type 1) fibers
How would you expect this exercise (felt muscle fatigue, produced lactic acid) to affect Rachel’s endurance and the size of her quadriceps femoris muscles?
Heavy resistance would cause muscle fatigue. Would not increase endurance, but would increase muscle hypertrophy
If her muscles get larger from this exercise, how is this enlargement produced?
hypertrophy
If Rachel were to perform this exercise using a lighter resistance (less weight) for a longer time, how would this exercise affect her endurance and muscle size?
increase her endurance, would not increase muscle size
How were the astronauts able to reduce this effect of muscle atrophy while in space?
exercise. specifically weight-bearing exercise. and adjustment to diet
Good way to reduce muscle atrophy to people in a cast
weight bearing, isometric exercise. stimulate osteoblasts
What are the benefits of resistance training for the elderly?
helps surviving muscles fibers to hyPERTROPHY
What are the benefits of endurance training for the elderly?
increases blood supply to fibers (helps aerobic respiration) and increase store of glycogen
What is the name of the skeletal muscle stem cells, located outside the muscle fibers, that can proliferate (divide) after injury and undergo changes that allow them to fuse together to form new muscle fibers?
Satellite cells
What is the name of this paracrine regulator that is elevated in elderly and what does it inhibit?
myostatin.
it inhibits satellite cell function
What is the medical name for an abnormal reduction in red blood cells (erythrocytes), hemoglobin, or both?
anemia
The production of what essential high energy three-phosphate compound would be subsequently reduced in the body as a result of anemia?
ATP
What category of anemia is most common?
iron-deficiency anemia
What are two mechanisms by which iron deficiency anemia may develop?
blood loss and inadequate iron in diet
What category of anemia is characterized by an inadequate intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 due to atrophy of the glandular mucosa of the stomach?
Pernicious anemia
What is the name of the condition caused by toxic destruction of the bone marrow that leads to a lack of ALL of the formed elements of the blood?
aplastic anemai
What are the causes of aplastic anemia cited in your text?
destruction of bone marrow caused by chemicals (benzene or arsenic) OR radiation
What is the scientific term for an elevated WBC count and what typically causes such an elevated count?
leukocytosis
What typically causes leukocytosis?
infections
What is the scientific term for an abnormally low WBC count and what can cause such an abnormally low count?
leukopenia
caused by POOR nutrition or whole body radiation
What is the scientific name for an abnormally low number of circulating eosinophils and what can cause such an abnormally low count?
eosinopenia
elevated # of glucocorticoids caused by STRESS or exogenous glucocorticoids
What disease condition is suggested by an abnormally large number of immature WBCs in a blood sample?
leukemia
What is the name of this potentially fatal fetal blood disorder?
hemolytic disease (erythroblastosis fetalis)
What can be administered during an Rh- mother’s first incompatible pregnancy to prevent HDN in next pregnancy?
RhoGAM
How do adrenergic effects adversely affect this process of baby crying and inducing oxytocin?

How can such adrenergic effects be avoided?
can elicite a flight-or-fight response which suppresses the neuroendocrine reflex

nurse in a calm and quiet environment
What can be done artificially to promote the milk-ejection reflex?
a synthetic nasal oxytocin spray
each cell could form the entire embryo if it were implanted into a uterus
totipotent cell
name for the emerging field of medical treatment using stem cells.
regenerative medicine
What is the name of the process that would allow the nucleus of an adult cell to be reprogrammed to regain its totipotency?
somatic cell- nuclear transfer
What are the benefits of using a patient’s own skin cells during somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate such therapeutic pluripotent stem cells?
so body will not reject it
What scientific term best describes these ES cells? (embryonic stem cells)
pluripotent
What are the risks of using such pluripotent cells therapeutically?
increase the risk of tumor growth
What scientific term best describes these adult stem cells?
multipotent
What is the name of the most severe of the muscular disorders that affects 1 out of 3,500 boys each year?
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
What is the name of this normally beneficial protein in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy?
dystrophin
How can physicians detect Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy before birth?
amniocentesis