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52 Cards in this Set

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Physiology
Body Functions and Parts
Dorsal Body Cavity
Brain, Spinal Cord, CNS and vertebrae
Ventral Body Cavity
Soft Organs (Viscera) in the thoracic and abdominal cavity
Thoracic Cavity Membrane that covers the heart, lungs and associated blood vessels
Pleurum
Membrane that covers the main internal organs (viscera)
Peritonium
A membrane that both the thorax and viscera
Parietal
Inflammation of the pleurum
Pleuritis
Inflammation of the peritoneum
Peritonitis
Homeostasis
The physiological state in which physical and chemical aspects of the internal environment are maintained within ranges suitible for cell activity. "equilibrium"
Homeostasis
Inhibits changes and/or deviations in the cell and can also stimulate and/or amplify changes.
Animal Cell Size
10-30um eg. RBC's (dogs and humans) 7-8um, WBC's 10-15um
Bacteria prokaryotic cell size
1-10um
Virus size
measured in nm (nanometers)
How many...
1.RBC Nucleus?
2.Muscle Cell Nucleus?
1. None
2. Sometimes 2 (high metabolism)
Plasma Membrane
Flexible elastic barrier that controls movement of atoms and molecules into and out of the cell. Composed of globular protiens, phospholipids, cholesterol, and CHO
Is a plasma membrane visible with a microscope?
No. The membrane is only 60-100 A (Angstrom) thick (1A = 1x10(-8)cm
What is...
Hydrophobic?
Hydrophilic?
1.Inner membrane layer, not water soluble
2. Outer membrane layer, water soluble
What can pass through a membrane? or not pass through?
Yes - oxygen and carbon dioxide
No - amino acids, certain proteins, sugars
Cytoskeleton
The internal structure of the cell that maintains the cell's shape and aids in some functions. It is composed of 3 types of filaments - microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments
Glycocalyx
The outer covering of the cell, composed of glycoproteins, that not only aids in cell adheision but also serves to identify the cell by other cells.
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Glycoproteins that aid not only in the bonding of cells but also in lubricating the movement of one cell past another. They also help to transport specialized cells to areas of need.
What is role of cholesterol in membrane function?
They wedge themselves between phospholipids to help stabilize membrane. Prevents lipids from aggregating maintaining fluid membrane. Increases membranes impermeability to water soluble molecules.
Cilia
9 pairs of microtubles that move in a wave like motion. eg. remove mucous from lung or pull egg from oviduct
Flagella
Singly occuring and are larger/longer than cilia. They move cells through fluids
Cytoplasm
Is the inner substance of the cell excludign the nucleus. Principal components are cytosol, cytoskeleton and organelles
Cytosol
The fluid of the cell. It is a viscous, semitransparent liquid made od dissolved electrolytes, amino acids and simple sugars.
Cytoskeleton
The internal structure of the cell that maintains the cells shape and aids in some functions. Composed of three filaments: microfilaments, microtubles and intermediate filaments
Mitrochondria
The powerhouse of the cell, provides 95% of cell energy. O2 is consummed and CO2 liberated.
Ribosomes
The most common organelle (smaller than mitochondria) composed of two sub units containing proteins and RNA (rRNA)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of channels withinthe cell that run from the nucleus to the exterior cell membrane. Rough: site for protein synthesis Smooth: site for lipid synthesis
Golgi Apparatus
An organelle located near the nucleus that is shaped like flattened sacs that are stacked and flattened at the ends. It is believed to be involved in the synthesis of glycoproteins, lipoproteins and enzymes.
Lysosomes
An organelle that fights pathogens, repairs damaged tissues and aids in extracellular digestion.
Autolysis
The self digestion of tissues or cells by enzymes that are released by their own lysosomes
Peroxisomes
Found in high numbers in kidney and liver cells of most vertebrate animals, this single membraned vesicle detoxifies the body by releasing catalase and other enzymes
Nucleus
The part of the cell that contains DNA and aids in several body functions, including reproduction, metabolism and growth.
Nuclear envelope
A double layed membrane made of lipids that surroundsthe nucleus and seperates the inner nucleoplasm from the outer cytoplasm. Contains large pores or channels.
Chromatin
The nuclear material of heredity as it occurs prior to cell division. Made up of histones (globular proteins and DNA)
Nucleoli
Contain DNA that govern the synthesis of ribosomal RNA. Important source of ribosomal sub units (which are later assembled in the cytoplasm)
Intracellular
Water internal to the cell
Extracellular
Water external to the cell
Interstitial fluid
Water found in extracellular tissue fluid (exclusive of blood or lymph)
Cations
Positively charges ions NA+
Anions
Negatively charged ions CH-
Acidic
Solutions with an excess of positively charged ions
Basic
Solutions with an excess od negatively charged ions
PH
is the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. Where 7 is neutral, 1 is acidic and 14 is basic
Active Transfer
any process of absorption or excretion requiring energy to move across membranes
Passive Transfer
any process of absorption or excretion not requiring energy to move across membranes
Diffusion
The passive movement of molecule in a fluid by kinetic energy alone. Down the concentration gradient. Movement of solute
Facilitated Diffusion
The diffusion of molecules across the cell membrane with the aid of a carrier protein. This reaction is otherwise unable to be performed as simple diffusion and it requires no energy or ATP
Osmosis
The passive movement of water through a semipermiable membrane into a solution where the water concentration is lower. Up the concentration gradient. Movement of solvent
Hypertonic
When the concentration of particles in solution is higher outside the cell. Thismay cause water to move from inside to outside the cell to obtain equilibrium. The cell shrivels and becomes crenated.