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56 Cards in this Set

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the two types of follicular cells:
granulosa and theca
this layer of the endometrium is dynamic and gets thicker during menstrual cycle
stratum functionalis
this layer of the endometrium is permanent and doesn't change
stratum basalis
this surrounds an oocyte
zona pellucida
secondary follicles that don't become Graafian follicles degenerate to form scar tissue in a process called:
atresia
in males this stage of sperm development is completed but in females this stage is only completed if the egg is fertilized
meiosis II
FSH stimulates these cells to convert androgens to estradiol
granulosa cells
androgens from theca cells are converted to estradiol in the granulosa cells via:
aromatase
LH stimulates these cells to make testosterone
theca cells
LH surge results in what two things:
ovulation and luteinization
during luteinization, what two cells transform into luteal cells to create the corpus luteum
granulosa cells and theca cells
What occurs with LH during ovulation
there is a reversal in feedback and elevated estrogen triggers massive release of LH - LH surge
this secretes large amounts of progesterone
corpus luteum
what happens to corpus luteum if it is not fertilized:
regresses into corpus albicans
what happens when corpus luteum regresses into corpus albicans
progesterone and estrogen secretion decreases and FSH and LH are no longer inhibited and are secreted
what are the days of the follicular phase
1 - 13
what are the days of the luteal phase
15 - 28
what are the days of the proliferative phase of the uterus
6 - 14
what are the days of the secretory phase
15 - 25
what stimulates development of mucous glands, blood vessels (angiogenesis) and glycogen
progesterone
progesterone stimulated angiogenesis occurs at the beginning of what stage
secretory
if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is "resqued" by this hormone produced by the embryo:
HCG
binding of the sperm to the zona pellucida triggers this reaction where enzymes are released to digest zona pellucida:
acrosome reaction
fusion of egg and sperm nuclei triggers this reaction:
cortical granule reaction
during this reaction, granules in the ovum release Ca++ into corticol space to make zona pellucida hard and innactivates zona pellucida receptors
cortical granule reaction
the period of rapid mitotic divisions of a zygote following fertilization:
cleavage
by 36 hours after fertilization, the first cleavage division has produced 2 identical cells called:
blastomeres
by 72 hours after fertilization, 16 or more cells are developed into the:
morula
by the 5th day, the morula becomes a
blastocyst
a blastocyst is a fluid filled sphere composed of in inner cell mass and these cells
trophoblast cells
these cells take take part in the formation of the placenta and secrete HCG
trophoblast cells
the trophoblast invades the endometrium and forms a new structure called the:
syncytiotrophoblast
androgen binding protein is produced in these cells
sertoli/sustentacular cells
inhibin is produced and secreted by these cells
sertoli/sustentacular cells
these cells produce testosterone in the male
Leydig/interstitial cells
failure of the testes to descend
cryptorchidism
exchange of heat in testicles occurs here:
pampiniform plexus
which comes first: spermatozoa or spermatogonium
spermatogonium / stem cells
testosterone is converted into this more potent form by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase
DHT / dihydrotestosterone
blood testis barrier consists of tight junctions between these cells
sertoli / sustentacular
this is a "cap" over the head of the sperma nd contains enzymes
acrosome
secretes fluid rich in citrate and proteolytic enzymes
prostate gland
secretes fluid rich in prostaglandins, fructose, and bicarb
seminal vesicles
secretes fluid rich in mucus and bicarb
bulbourethral glands
increase or decrease in pH leads to CNS over-excitability:
increase
H2CO3
carbonic acid
in proteins, this portion soaks up H+
amine portion
in proteins, this portion, releases H+
carboxyl portion
when CO2 increases, pH increses or decreases
decreases
what are the first, second, and third lines of defense in pH regulation
buffers, respiratory, renal
hyperventilaiton increases or decreases pH
increases
what are the three ways the kidneys regulate pH
secrete H+ (in urine), reabsorb bicarb, synthesize bicarb
which comes first: acidemia or acidosis
acidemia
the normal pH range in the ECF
7.35 - 7.45
Kussmaul's breathing occurs as compensation in this
metabolic acidosis
hypokalemia is a sign found in:
metabolic alkalosis