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78 Cards in this Set

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Common precursor of all steroid hormones produced by adrenals as well as gonads:
pregnenolone
Rate limiting step in production of steroids by adrenals and gonads:
pregnenolone
Used to transport adrenal steroids in blood:
transcortin/corticosteroid binding globulin
"coping with adversity"
glucocorticoids
Required for normal vascular integrity and responsiveness. Lack of this results in abnormal vasodilation:
cortisol
GFR falls in absence of this:
cortisol
Inhibits production of inflammatory mediators (histamine, cytokines, leukotrienes, prostaglandins):
cortisol
Androstenedione and DHEA are controlled by _____ and not FSH & LH.
ACTH
What causes precocious pseudopuberty and pseudohermaphroditism in prepupertal development:
excess androgens
From zona glomerulus of adrenal cortex:
aldosterone a mineralcorticoid
From zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex:
cortisol, a glucocorticoid
From zona reticularis of adrenal cortex:
androgens, androcorticoids
Found in kidneys and secretes renin:
Juxtaglomerulus (JG) apparatus
Splits off angiotensin I from angiotensinogen
renin
Caused by a tumor of the adrenal medulla and causes waxing and waning of epi and norepi
pheochromocytoma
Converts pancreatic enzyme trypsinogen to trypsin:
enterokinase
Microvilli covered surface found in SI and kidneys:
Brush Border
This Brush Border enzyme increases CHO digestion:
disaccharidase
This Brush Border enzyme increases protein digestion:
aminopeptidase
This Brush Border enzyme hydrolyzes the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) peptide bond of proteins and peptides thus releasing the last amino acid of the chain
carboxypeptidase
Highly vascular cells that make up 1-2% of pancreatic mass and produce insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin:
Langerhans/pancreatic islets (endocrine)
Mainly found in the pancrease and produce HCO3 and many digestive enzymes (exocrine):
acinar cells
Found in pancreatic tissues and prevents self destruction of pancrease by own enzymes:
trypsin inhibitors
Function to convert many pancreatic enzymes to then digest proteins:
trypsin
Produced by parietal cells of stomach:
HCl
Provides necessary pH to convert pepsinogen to pepsin:
HCl
What two things are produced by chief cells of stomach:
pepsinogen and gastric lipase
Produced by parathyroid chief cell:
PTH
Produced by gastric enteroendocrine cells:
gastrin
Produced by gastric enterochromaffin cells:
histamine
Converts high CO2 concentration in stomach to bicarbonate:
carbonic anhydrase
Products of protein digestion and H+ in duodenum inhibit vagus: what reflex?
enterogastric
produced by H. Pylori
urease
Another name for toxic adenoma/toxic multinodular goiter
Plummer's disease
congenital hypothyroidism
cretinism
Autoimmune disease where body's own antibodies attack cells of thyroid
Hashimoto's
Most predominate cells of parathyroid:
principal/chief cells
Synthesize and secrete PTH and sense changes in ECF Ca++
principal/chief cells
Stimulus for secretion is hypocalcemia:
PTH
PTH affects what three areas:
bone (direct), kidney (direct), and intestine (indirect)
Involved in stimulation to create active form of Vit D in kidney:
PTH
Synthesized and secreted by parafollicular cells of thyroid:
calcitonin
What does increased ECF Ca++ do to central and peripheral neural excitablity
decreases it
What does decreased ECF Ca++ do to nervous system excitability:
increases it because it increases the permeability to Na and can lead to tetany
Muscular spasms in face from hypocalcemia
Chvostek's sign
Found in sinusoids and are macrophages that remove debris:
Kuppfer cells
Functional unit of liver:
lobule
Hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of what to vessels:
splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein
Liver circulation exit:
hepatic vein into IVC
Occurs in liver, what is involved in the conversionn of unconjugated bilirubin into conjugated bilirubin:
glucuronic acid
High accumulation of biliruin in neonate that damages brain and occurs because BBB isn't fully developed:
kernicterus
What is involved in the conversion of conjugated bilirubin to unconjugated bilirubin:
b-glucoronidase
Post-hepatic jaundice where bile cannot flow from liver to duodunum because bile ducts are obstructed:
cholestasis
Presence of gall stones:
cholelithiasis
Epithelial cells of superficial layer of GI:
enterocyte
Degrades polysaccharides into disaccharides:
pancreatic amylase
Microvilli covered surface of SI and kidney and involved in CHO digestion:
Brush Border
Brush Border enzyme that converts pancreatic trypsinogen to trypsin:
enterokinase
Breaks down small triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
pancreatic lipase
Process where large triglycerides are broken down into small tri's by bile salts and lecithin:
emulsification
Emulsification required what two substances:
lecithin and bile salts
Where fatty acids and glycerol are packaged and enter intestinal cells.
micelles
Inside intestinal cells, fatty acids and glycerol are packaged into these and then they enter the lymphatic system to go to the liver.
chylomicrons
Requires presence of Vit D for absorption:
Ca++
Longitudinal bands of large intestine:
tenia coli
Pouches in large intestine:
haustra
Two substances involved in erythrocyte maturation:
B12, folic acid
Clotting factors require what vitamins:
Vit K
Lymph tissue found at the end of the GI:
Peyer's patches and MALT
What do fats and AA in duodenum stimulate:
CCK secretion
What two things do acids and AA in duodenum stimulate:
secretin secretion and GIP secretion
CCK (I cells) in duodenum stimulates what two things:
gall bladder contraction and secretion of pancreatic enzymes
What four things are stimulated by the vagus nerve in digestion:
intestinal segmentation and peristalsis, secretion of pancreatic enzymes, gall bladder contraction, gastrin secretion
What does gastrin stimulate:
gastric juice secretion and histamine, and pepsinogen
What two things do secretin do:
inhibit gastric motility and emptying, and stimulate pancreatic bicarbonate release
Which pancreatic enzyme is involved in fat digestion:
pancreatic lipase
Which pancreatic enzyme is involved in carbohydrate digestion:
pancreatic amylase
What is involved in the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin:
HCl