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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Extracellular fluid consists of what?
Plasma and interstitial fluid compose what?
The four basic components of a feedback mechanism?
Variable, sensor (receptor), control center, and effector are part of what?
when homeostasis cannot be maintained:
1)something prevents an organ from doing its job, 2) there is often a loss of negative feedback, 3) organs have reached phsiological limit
Timeline of events when homeostasis is disrupted:
homeostasis, cellular adaptation, cellular injury, cellular death (necrosis), somatic death
adaptation is a state that lies between what:
a normal healthy cell and the injured cell - what occurs between these two states
cellular adaptation occurs when:
cells are subjected to non-homeostatic conditions - what occurs
4 forms of adaptation:
atrophy,hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia
what happens when a non-homeostatic condition overwhelms adaptive process?
cellular injury occurs when?
what is metaplasia?
replacement of one cell type with another, often occurs in response to some continual irritation or chronic inflammation
results of cellular injury:
cell membrane disruptions, cellular accumulations or infiltrations, changes in organelle appearance, alterations in cellular metabolism, lysosomal rupture
common etiologies of cellular injury:
hypoxia, chemical injuries, infections, radiation, physical injury/trauma
types of necrosis:
coagulative necrosis, liquification necrosis, caseous necrosis, fat necrosis, gangrene, avascular necrosis
this occurs from hypoxia from severe ischemia or chemical injury. Areas of denatured proteins and solid. Areas dissolved by proteolytic enzymes and replaced by scar tissue
coagulative necrosis
caused by ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells. Can occur from bacterial infections that trigger localized collection of WBCs
liquefactive necrosis
associated with TB and combination of coagulative and liquefactive. resembles soft, clumped cheese
Caseous necrosis
occurs in adipose tissue and is due to release of lipases from dead cells. Pancreatic cell death. Produce soaps, chalky-cheesy nodules. Consist of dead fat cells, inflammatory cells and phagocytes filled with fat
fat necrosis
necrosis of many tissues in localized area
gangrene necrosis
disease resulting from temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to bones
avascular necrosis, also osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, ischemic bone necrosis
decrease in body temp after heart stops
algor mortis
maroon/purplish color that develops when heart stops. effect created when heavier RBC settle downward from serum due to gravity
livor mortis
hardening of muscles that begins shortly after death
rigor mortis