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100 Cards in this Set

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What are ribosomes?
They are the sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules.
What are the endoplasmic reticulum?
They are a network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations.
What is the soma?
Contains the nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, and other structures found in most cells.
What is the axon?
Is a thin fiber of constant diameter, in most cases longer than the dendrites.
What is depolarization?
Reduction in the level of polarization across a membrane.
What is a myelin sheath?
It is insulating material that covers many vertebrate axons.
What is a Node of Ranvier?
It is short unmyelinated section of axon between segments of myelin.
What is an afferent axon?
Brings information into a structure.
What is an efferent axon?
Carries information away from a structure.
What is an Intrinsic Neuron?
A neuron whose axons and dendrites are all confined within a given structure.
What are Glia?
They are a type of cell in the nervous system that, in contrast to neurons, does not conduct impulses to other cells.
What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine Triphosphate.
What is the all-or-none rule?
It is a principle stating that the size, amplitude, and velocity of the action potential are independent of the intensity of the stimulus that initiated it.
What is an atrocyte?
A relatively large, star-shaped glia cell.
What are microglia?
They are very small neurons that remove waste materials and microorganisms from the central nervous system.
What are Ologiodendrocytes?
Glia cells that surround and insulate certain axons in the vertebrate brain and spinal cord.
What are Schwann cells?
Glia cells that surround and insulate certain axons in the periphery of the vertebrate body.
What are Radial Glia?
They are a type of astrocyte that guide the migration of neurons and the growth of their axons and dendrites during embryonic development.
What is the blood brain barrier?
It is the mechanism that keeps many chemicals out of the brain.
What is active transport?
It is a protein mediated process that expends energy to pump chemicals from the blood into the brain.
What type of energy do neurons depend on?
Neurons depend on glucose for most of their energy needs.
Why is thiamine important?
Thiamine is important because it is a chemical that is necessary to use glucose.
What are the four major parts of neurons?
The four major parts of neurons are a cell body (soma), dendrites, an axon, and presynaptic terminals.
What is an electrical gradient?
It is a diference in electric charge between the inside and the outside of the cell.
What is polarization?
It is an difference in electrical chrage between two locations.
What is the resting potential?
It is the difference in voltage in a resting neuron.
What does selectively permeable mean?
Some chemicals can pass through it more freely than others can.
What is the sodium-potassium pump?
It is a protein complex that repeatedly transports three sodium ions out of the cell while drawing two potassium ions into it.
What is a concentration gradient?
A concentration gradient is the difference in distribution of ions across the membrane.
What is hyperpolarization?
It is increased polarization.
What is depolarization?
It is a reduction of its polarization toward zero.
What is the threshold of excitation?
A level of depolarization at which a brief stimulation tiggers a rapid, massive electrical change by the membrane.
What happens at the threshold of excitation?
The membrane opens its sodium channels and permits a rapid, massive flow of ions across the membrane.
What is an action potential?
A rapid depolarization and slight reversal of the usual polarization.
What is the factor with how the membrane proteins allow access to sodium?
The protein membranes are voltage-activated channels.
What are voltage-activated channels?
They are membrane channels whose permeability depends on the voltage difference across the membrane.
Why does sodium (Na) want to move into the intracellular fluid?
Because the intracellular fluid is both negatively charged (sodium is positive) and the concentration of sodium is so much stronger in the extracellular fluid.
What brings the cell back to its orginal state of polarization?
The potassium pumps open wider than usual and since they are much more concentrated inside and there is now a positive charge due to the sodium ions, they flow out, carrying with them a positive charge, and bring about a hyperpolarization.
What is a refractory period?
A brief period following an action potential, when the cell resists the production of further action potentials.
What is a relative refractory period?
It is the time after the absolute refractory period, when potassium gates remain open wider than usual, requiring a stronger than usual stimulus to initiate an action potential.
What is altruistic behavior?
Behavior that benefits someone other than the individual engaging in the behavior.
What is artificial selection?
It is a change in the frequencies of various genes in a population because of a breeder's selection of desired individuals for mating purposes.
What is an autosomal gene?
It is a gene on any of the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes.
What is binocular rivarly?
It is alternating perception of what the left eye sees with what the right eye sees when the two are incompatible.
What is a chromosome?
It is a strand of DNA bearing the genes.
What is a cross-over?
It is the exchange of parts between two chromosomes during replication.
What is deoxyribonucleic acid?
It is a double stranded chemical that composes the chromosomes; it serves as a template for the synthesis of RNA.
What are dizygotic twins?
They are fraternal twins.
What does a dominant gene mean?
It is a gene that shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition.
What is dualism?
It is the belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance, existing independently.
What are easy problems?
They are questions pertaining to certain concepts that are termed consciousnesss, such as teh difference between wakefulness and asleep, and the mechanisms that enable us to focus our attention.
What is an enzyme?
It is any protein that catalyzes biological reactions.
What is evolution?
It is a change in the frequencies of various genes in a population over generations.
What is an evolutionary explanation?
It is understanding in terms of the evolutionary history of a species.
What is evolutionary psychology?
It is a field concerned with how and why various social behaviors evolved.
What is fitness?
It is the number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations.
What is a functional explanation?
It is understanding why a structure or behavior evolved as it did.
What is a gene?
It is a unit of heredity that maintains its structural identity from one generation to another.
What is a hard problem?
It is a philosophical question of why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness.
What is heritability?
It is an estimate of the degree to which variance in a characteristic depends on variations in heredity for a given population.
What does heterozygous mean?
It means having two unlike genes for a given trait.
What does homozygous mean?
It means having two identical genes for a given characteristic.
What does identity position mean?
It is the view that mental processes are the same as certain kinds of brain processes but described in different terms.
What is kin selection.
It is selection for a gene because it benefits the individual's relatives.
What is lamarckian evolution?
It is a discredited theory that evolution proceeds through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.
What is materialism?
It is the view that everything that exists is material or physical.
What is mentalism?
It is the view that only the mind really exists.
What is the mind-body problem?
It is the question of how the mind is related to the brain.
What is monism?
It is the theory that only one kind of substance exists in the universe, you are not seperating physical and mental processes.
What are monozygotic twins?
They are identical twins, derived from a single fertilized egg.
What is the multiplier effect?
It is teh tendency for small genetic or prenatal influences to change the environmenta in a way that magnifies the change.
What is a mutation?
It is a change in a gene during reproduction.
What is a ontogenetic explanation?
It is the understanding in terms of how a structure or a behavior develops.
What is phenylketonuria?
It is an inherited inability to metabolize phenylalanine, leading to mental retardation unless the afflicted person stays on a strict low-phenylalanine diet throughout childhood.
What is a physiological explanation?
It means understanding things in terms of the activity of the brain.
What is the problem of other minds?
It is the difficulty of knowing whether other people or animals have conscious experiences.
What does a recessive gene mean?
It is a gene that shows its effects only in the homozygous condition.
What is reciprocal altruism?
It is helping individuals who may later be helpful in return.
What is recombination?
It is the reassortment of genes during reproduction, leading to a characteristic that is not apparent in either parent.
What is ribonucleic acid?
It is a single strand chemical; one type of an RNA molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules.
What is a sex-limited gene?
It is a gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens, although members of both sexes may have the gene.
What is a sex-linked gene?
A gene on either the X or the Y chromosome.
What is solipsism?
It is the philosophical position that I alone exist or I alone am conscious.
What is an X chromosome?
It is a chromosome of which female mammals have two and males have one.
What is a Y chromosome?
It is a chromosome of which female mmals have none and males one.
What is a postsynaptic neuron?
It is the cell that receives the message.
What is a presynaptic neuron?
The neuron that delivers the synaptic transmission.
What is temporal summation?
It is the idea that repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect. He referred to this phenomenon as...
What is an ionotropic effect?
It is when a neurotransmitter binds to a receptor on the membrane and almost immediately opens the gates for some type of ion.
What are metabotropic effects?
It is a sequence of metabolic reactions that are slower and longer lasting than ionotropic effects.
What happens in a metabolic synapse?
By the way of a G-protein, it releases a second message, influences activity in a large area of the cell and over a longre time.
What is reuptake?
The presynaptic neuron takes up most of the used neurotransmitters intact and reuses them.
What is an antagonist?
It is a drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter.
What is an agonist?
It is a drug that mimics or increases its effects.
What does drug having an affinity for a receptor mean?
It means that it binds to that receptor.
What does efficacy mean?
It is its tendency to activate the receptor.
What is the nucleus accumbens?
It is a small subcortical area rich in dopamine receptors.
What is anterior?
Towards the front end.
What is posterior?
Toward the rear end?
What is superior?
Above another part?