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121 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
NEURON
specialized cell that is directly involved in mental processes and behavior
NEUROTRANMITTER
chemical substance that is released axon terminals,diffuses across synapses and exites or inhibits receptor sites on postsynaptic cells
TYPES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS (5)
ACETYLCHOLINE, GABA, EPINEPHIRE, NOREEPINEPHRINE, DOPAMINE, AND SERATONIN
CONDUCTION
ELECTRICAL PROCESS IN THE RECEPTION AND TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION WITHIN A NERVE CELL
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
allows Cl- and K+ ions to enter the cell, but excludes Na+
ACTION POTENTIAL
resting potential of neuron changes with enough stimulation
HYPERPOLARIZATION
greater negativity INSIDE the cell, causes a state of inhibition,Na+ ions rush OUT OF the cell, inhibiting the cell
DEPOLARIZATION
decreased negativity INSIDE the cell, causes a state of excitation, Na+ ions rush INTO cell, exciting the cell
ALL OR NONE LAW
governs action potentials. variation of action potentials is a function of freq., pattern, and destination. either the action potential meets the minimum to be generated or not...and if they are they fire more frequently, not stronger
ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD
period after an action potential when the neuron cannot fire again.
EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL (EPSP)
depolarizing postsynaptic potentisl
INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL
hyperpolarizing postsynatic potential
ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh)
in CNS: REM sleep, regulation of sleep-wake cycle & memory
communicates with hippocampus, memory deficits of Alzheimer's
in PNS: muscle contraction
ACh NICOTINE RECEPTORS
enhances alertness and memory by mimicking ACh
CATECHOLAMINES (3)
norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
NOREPINEPHRINE
noradrenaline
low levels ass/w depression
EPINEPHRINE
adrenaline
DOPAMINE
low levels ass/w depression
high levels ass/w schzophrenia and Tourette's
regulation of movement, degeneration of dopamine underlies muscle rgidity and Parkinson's
SEROTONIN (5-HT)
inhibitory effect, implicated in mood, hunger, temp reg., sexual activity, arousal, migraine, sleep aggression.
high levels: schizophrenia and autism
low levels: depression, suicide, PTSD, OCD and agression
GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA)
inhibitory: ass/w sleep, eating, seizure, and anxiety disorders affectd by benzos & other CNS depressants

GABA in basal ganglia contribute to motor sxs. of Huntington's disease
GLUTAMATE
excitatory, ass/w learning, memory & long term potentiation for the formation of long term memory
excessive=seizures strike related brain damage, Huntingtons's and Alzheimer's
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
somatic & autonomic
SOMATIC
sensory & skeletal motor systems
AUTONOMIC
parasympathetic & sympathetic
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
BRAIN (3)
hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
HINDBRAIN (3)
medulla, pons, cerebellum
FOREBRAIN (5)
thalamus, hypothal, limbic system, basal ganglia, cortex
SPINAL CORD
carries information between brain and PNS, coordinates activities of the left and right sides of body and controls simple reflexes, divided into 5 groups, cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, & coccygeal
QUADRIPLEGIA
loss of sensory & voluntary motor functioning of arms and legs
PARAPLEGIA
loss of function in legs
3 MEMBRANES PROTECTING BRAIN
dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
SUBARACHNOID SPACE
space between arachnoid and pia mater, filled with spinal fluid.
HYDROCEPHALUS
obstruction of flow of CSF that enlarges the 4 ventricles. ass/w some schizophrenia
PARAPLEGIA
loss of function in legs
3 MEMBRANES PROTECTING BRAIN
dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater
SUBARACHNOID SPACE
space between arachnoid and pia mater, filled with spinal fluid.
HYDROCEPHALUS
obstruction of flow of CSF that enlarges the 4 ventricles. ass/w some schizophrenia
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (SNS)
sensory nerves carry info from sensory receptors to CNS
motor nerves carry info from CNS to skeletal muscles
governs voluntary movement
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)
sensory nerves that connects viscera receptors to CNS and motor nerves from CNS to smooth muscles, heart and glands. governs involuntary movement.BIOFEEDBACK, HYPNOSIS CAN MAKE INVOLUNTARY VOLUNTARY
ANS DIVIDED INTO 2
sympathetic and parasympathetic
SYMPATHETIC
reaction to external threat: dilates pupils, inhibits peristalisis, dry mouth sweating, increased BP and heart rate FIGHT OR FLIGHT
PARASYMPATHETIC
conserves energy, digestion, periods of rest and relaxation
CEREBRAL CORTEX (what % of brain wght)
80%
FUNCTION OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
higher level cognitive, emotional, and motor function
CEREBRAL CORTEX: how many hemispheres & lobes
2 hemispheres divided into 4 lobes
HEMISPHERE SPECIALIZATION: LEFT
visual: letters, words
auditory: language related sounds
memory: verbal memory
language: speech, reading, writing, arithmetic
emotion: positive
HEMISPHERE SPECIALIZATION: RIGHT
visual: geometric patterns and facial recognition
auditory: music & other non-language sounds
memory: non-verbal
spatial processing:geometry, sense of direction
emotion: negative
4 LOBES OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
FRONTAL LOBE (4 lobes)
major portion of Cerebral cortex incl. motor, premotor, & prefrontal
MOTOR CORTEX
controls voluntary movement, fingers, lips, jaw
DAMAGE MOTOR CORTEX
loss of refelxes and muscle tone in areas contralateral to the damage
HEMIPLAGIA
loss of muscle tone
PREMOTOR CORTEX
contains BROCA'a area (usually in left hemi.
BROCA'S AREA
in premotor cortex
inv. speech production
DAMAGE TO BROCA'S AREA
BROCA'S aphasia: expressive, problems with spoken and written language
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
emotional, memory, self-awareness, higher level cognitive functions
DAMAGE TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (1st)
psuedodepression:apathy, lethargy, narrowing interests, reduced emotional rxs. reduced sex drive, impaired memory & attention
DAMAGE TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (2nd)
psuedopsycopathology: loss of social contact, lack of empathy, impulsivity, sex disihibition, inappropriate jocularity
COGNITIVE DEFICITS TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (5)
problems w/ abstract thinking, planning ability, decision-making, perseveration, inabilit to remember temporal events, hypofrontality
PERSEVERATION
inability to alter a response when the stimulus changes
HYPOFRONTALITY
reduced metabolism in prefrontal cortex linked to schizophrenia, ADHD and age related cognitive declines
PREMOTOR CORTEX
contains BROCA'a area (usually in left hemi.
BROCA'S AREA
in premotor cortex
inv. speech production
DAMAGE TO BROCA'S AREA
BROCA'S aphasia: expressive, problems with spoken and written language
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
emotional, memory, self-awareness, higher level cognitive functions
DAMAGE TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (1st)
psuedodepression:apathy, lethargy, narrowing interests, reduced emotional rxs. reduced sex drive, impaired memory & attention
DAMAGE TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (2nd)
psuedopsycopathology: loss of social contact, lack of empathy, impulsivity, sex disihibition, inappropriate jocularity
COGNITIVE DEFICITS TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (5)
problems w/ abstract thinking, planning ability, decision-making, perseveration, inabilit to remember temporal events, hypofrontality
PERSEVERATION
inability to alter a response when the stimulus changes
HYPOFRONTALITY
reduced metabolism in prefrontal cortex linked to schizophrenia, ADHD and age related cognitive declines
PARIETAL LOBE (contains)
somatosensory cortex
PREMOTOR CORTEX
contains BROCA'a area (usually in left hemi.
BROCA'S AREA
in premotor cortex
inv. speech production
DAMAGE TO BROCA'S AREA
BROCA'S aphasia: expressive, problems with spoken and written language
PREFRONTAL CORTEX
emotional, memory, self-awareness, higher level cognitive functions
DAMAGE TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (1st)
psuedodepression:apathy, lethargy, narrowing interests, reduced emotional rxs. reduced sex drive, impaired memory & attention
DAMAGE TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (2nd)
psuedopsycopathology: loss of social contact, lack of empathy, impulsivity, sex disihibition, inappropriate jocularity
COGNITIVE DEFICITS TO PREFRONTAL CORTEX (5)
problems w/ abstract thinking, planning ability, decision-making, perseveration, inabilit to remember temporal events, hypofrontality
PERSEVERATION
inability to alter a response when the stimulus changes
HYPOFRONTALITY
reduced metabolism in prefrontal cortex linked to schizophrenia, ADHD and age related cognitive declines
PARIETAL LOBE (contains)
somatosensory cortex
SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
governs pressure temp, pain, propriocetion, gustation, stimulation results in warmth or tingling of different parts of body
DAMAGE TO PARIETAL LOBE
disturbance in spatial orientation, apraxia, tactile agnosia, asomatognosia, anosognosia
APRAXIA
inability to perform skilled motor movements when there in NOT impaired motor function
TACTILE AGNOSIA
inability to recognize familiar objects by touch
ASOMATOGNOSIA
failure to recognize parts of one's body
ANOSOGNOSIA
inability to recognize one's neurological sxs. or other disorders
LESIONS IN RIGHT (non-dominant) PARIETAL LOBE
dressing a praxia, contralateral neglect
CONTRALATERAL NEGLECT
loss of knowledge or interest in the left side of the body
LESIONS IN LEFT (dominant) PARIETAL LOBE
ideational apraxia, ideomotor apraxia, Gertsmann Syndrome
IDEATIONAL APRAXIA
inability to carry out sequence of actions
IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA
inabilit to carry out a simple action in response to a command
DAMAGE TO PARIETAL LOBE
disturbance in spatial orientation, apraxia, tactile agnosia, asomatognosia, anosognosia
APRAXIA
inability to perform skilled motor movements when there in NOT impaired motor function
TACTILE AGNOSIA
inability to recognize familiar objects by touch
ASOMATOGNOSIA
failure to recognize parts of one's body
ANOSOGNOSIA
inability to recognize one's neurological sxs. or other disorders
LESIONS IN RIGHT (non-dominant) PARIETAL LOBE
dressing a praxia, contralateral neglect
CONTRALATERAL NEGLECT
loss of knowledge or interest in the left side of the body
LESIONS IN LEFT (dominant) PARIETAL LOBE
ideational apraxia, ideomotor apraxia, Gertsmann Syndrome
IDEATIONAL APRAXIA
inability to carry out sequence of actions
IDEOMOTOR APRAXIA
inability to carry out a simple action in response to a command
GERTSMANN SYNDROME
finger agnosia, right-left confusion, agraphia and acalculia
TEMPORAL LOBE (contains)
auditory cortex
TEMPORAL LOBE FUNCTION
mediates auditory sensation and perception
mediates encoding, retrieval, and storage of long-term declarative memories
DAMAGE TO TEMPORAL LOBE
audidtory agnosia, audidtory hallucinations , & other disturbances
WERNICKE'S AREA (where/function)
located in dominant (left) temporal lobe and involved w/ language comprehension
DAMAGE TO WERNICKE'S AREA
severe deficits in language comprehension, and abnormalties in language production
ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF TEMPORAL LOBE
produces vivid memories that had otherwise been forgotten
OCCIPITAL LOBE (contains)
visual cortex
FUNCTION VISUAL CORTEX
visual perception, recognition, and memory
DAMAGE TO OCCIPITAL LOBE
visual agnosia, visual hallucinations, cortical blindness
VISUAL AGNOSIA
inability to recognize familiar objects
SIMULTANAGNOSIA
inabilit to see more than one thing or one aspect of an object at a time
LESIONS AT JUNCTION OF OCCIPITAL, TEMPORAL, & PARIETAL LOBES
prosopagnosia:
PROSOPAGNOSIA
inability to recognize familiar faces
CONTRALATERAL REPRESENTATION
left hemisphere controls the right side; right hemisphere controls the left side
CORPUS CALLOSUM
fiber bundles connecting right and left hemisphere
DAMAGE TO CORPUS CALLOSUM
split-brain patients
can be treatment for epilepsy
SPLIT-BRAIN PATIENTS
when picture of object projected to left visual field (to right hemi) pt. couldn't name or describe object, could pick objects out with w/ left hand, but not right

picture projected to right visual field (left hemi) pt. could name object, but unable to select object by touch only.