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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Pleural Linkage
Connection between inner & outer pleural membranes created by vacuum between surfaces
Cephalic vs. Caudal
towards brain vs. towards tail
Striated muscle
Subject to voluntary control
ex: Skeletal muscles
Smooth muscle
Not subject to voluntary control: involuntary
ex: lining arteries
Cardiac muscle
specialized muscle heart is made of
Tendons
connects muscle to bone
Ligaments
connect bone to bone
ex: joint
Cartilage
structural tissue
Less hard and less dense than bone bu still serves as structural wall
Residual Volume
amount of air left in lungs after maximum exhalation
Alveolor pressure
air pressure coming from lungs that we speak on
Vital Capacity
total amount of air that you can use for the exchange of CO2 and O2
-exhale maximally and then meausre amount can take in
Minor muscles in exhalation
Internal intercostals
Subcostals
Transversus Thoracics
Quadratus Lumborum
Serratus Posterior Inferior
Muscles of Exhalation:
2 Groups
1)Ribcage muscles: pull down on ribcage to decrease size/volume of thorax
2)Abdominal muscles:
a.)pull down on ribcage
b.)compress abdominal contents
Neck and Front Muscles of inhalation (Minor)
Sternocleidomastoid
Scaleni group
Subclavius
Pectoralis Minor
Serratur Anterior
Minor back muslces of inhalation
Levatores Costarum
Latissimus Dorsi
Serratus Posterior Superior
-General Functon=expand size of thorax
Muscles of inhalation:
2 Most Important
1)Diaphram
2)External intercostals
Inner Pleural Membrane
Outer Pleural Membrane
2 Lunges seperately encased in 2 Inner Pleural Membranes
-Outer Pleural Membrane attached to the inside borders of the thorax
Planes:
1)Frontal
2)Sagital: midsagital &parasagital
3)Transverse
1)front to back
2)down middle-L to R
parallel to midsagital cut
3)like cutting a tree
Striated Muscle:
1)Origin
2)Insertion
3)Course
1)stable place where muscle is attached
2)place where it moves readily
where muscle attaches to the bone that's moveable
3)where movement of muscles runs
3 Dimensions chest expands along
1)Vertically
2)Lateral
3)Anterior-Posterior
Bronchial Tree
Terminal Bronchioles
repeated splitting of the bronchi: fine details of lungs
-last division
How does Boyle's Law explain respiration?
Holds that volume and pressure are inversely proportional to one another: When volume in lungs go up, pressure goes down--causes exhalation and vice versa
2 main jobs of muscles of exhalation
1)pull down on ribcage
2)compress viscera
Thus allowing diaphram to move back up
Muscles of Exhalation
1)Ribcage muscles
-pull down on ribcage to contract size/volume of thorax
2)Abdominal muscles
a)pull down on ribcage
b)compress abdominal contents
--By pulling down on ribcage & compressing abdominal contents diaphram moves back upwards
Tidal Volume
15% change in breathing (VC)
volume of air we use during quiet breathing
Resting level
Minimal amount of movment/activing
-b/c not taxing it is very efficient
ex: sitting in class
Forced Respiration
must recruit more muscles for inhalation and exhalation to go beyond tial volume
ex: jogging
Inspiratory reserve volume
breathe above Tidal volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
volume of air which you could breathe down to below resting level
How do we generate air pressure for speech?
1)Respiratory effort: using your muscles more
2)Change airway resistance (to increase alveolar pressure for speech)
2 levels of loudness (by changing pressure)
1)overall loudness
2)syllabic changes
Speech breathing
rapid inhale followed by prolonged exhale (while speaking)
Great paradox of speech breathing
During exhalation you use the muscles of inhalation
Agonist muscles v Antagonist muscles
Only apply to muscles around joint
1)doing the work-muscles around joint
2)opposing muscle
muscle on opp. side of joint
Trachea
Bifricates into bronchus
Is inhalation active or passive?
Active
Is exhalation active or passive?
Active and passive