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23 Cards in this Set

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What are the three different pathways of the complement system?
1. Classic pathway- triggered by immune complexes
2. Mannose binding lectin pathway- triggered when this lectin binds mannose groups in bacteria
3. Alternative pathway(properdin)- triggered by contact with various viruses, bacteria fungi and tumor cells.
What do complement proteins actually do?
They help kill invading organisms by opsonization, chemotaxis and eventual lysis of the cells.
These complement proteins and fragments serve in part as a bridge from innate to acquired immunity by activating B cells and aiding immune memory. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. They also help dispose of waste products after apoptosis.
What are perforins?
This is involved in cell lysis brought about by complement protein. It is brought about by inserting proteins called perforins.
What are the three different pathways of the complement system?
1. Classic pathway- triggered by immune complexes
2. Mannose binding lectin pathway- triggered when this lectin binds mannose groups in bacteria
3. Alternative pathway(properdin)- triggered by contact with various viruses, bacteria fungi and tumor cells.
What do complement proteins actually do?
They help kill invading organisms by opsonization, chemotaxis and eventual lysis of the cells.
These complement proteins and fragments serve in part as a bridge from innate to acquired immunity by activating B cells and aiding immune memory. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. They also help dispose of waste products after apoptosis.
What are perforins?
This is involved in cell lysis brought about by complement protein. It is brought about by inserting proteins called perforins.
Verbally outline the development of the system mediating acquired immunity.
1. From the bone marrow and lymphocyte precursors are born T lymph. and B lymph.
2. T lymph. mature in the thymus and will become cytotoxic T cells(CD8 T cells) which confirms cellular immunity. These same T lymph, from the thymus will become helper T cells(CD4 T cells) that will help create memory B cells.
3. B lymph will continue development in bone marrow and liver, and will become plasma cells(with the help of Helper T cells). These plasma cells will create and clone immunoglobulins to confer Humoral immunity.
The recognition ability is innate and develops without exposure to the antigen. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Stem cells differentiate into many different T and B lymphocytes, each with the ability to respond to a particular antigen.
What are antigen presenting cells?
They include specialized cells called dendritic cells in the lymph nodes and spleen and Langherhan cells in the skin.
Macrophages and B cells also can function as APCs.
How do APCs basically function?
In APCs polypeptide products of antigen digestion are coupled to protein products of the MHC complex(MHC) genes genes and presented on the surface of a cell. The products of the MHC genes are called Human Leukocyte Antigen.(HLA)
What are the two classes of MHC?
The genes of the MHC, which are located on the short arm of human chromosome 6, encode glycoproteins and are divided into 2 classes on the basis of structure and function.
Class 1 are found on all nucleated cells.
Class 11 are heterodimers. They are present in APCs, including B cells and in activated T cells.
The class 1 MHC proteins are coupled promarily to peptide fragments generated from proteins synthesized within cells. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Nontolerant peptides, those from mutant or viral proteins, are recognized by T cells. The digestion of these proteins occur in proteasomes(protealytic enzymes) in the MHC group, and the peptide fragments appear to bind to MHC proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
How does this compare to the class 11 proteins?
These are concerned primarily with peptide products of extracellular antigens, such as bacteria, that enter the cell via endocytosis and are digested in the late endosomes.
Receptors on T cells must recognize a wide variety of complexes. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Most of the receptors on circulating T cells are made up of two polypeptide units designated a/B(alpha and beta).
They form heterodimers that recognize the MHC proteins and the antigen fragments with which they are combined. These are called a/b T cells.
Are these a/b T cells the only T cell receptors?
No. About 10% of the circulating T cells have 2 different polypeptides designated gamma and theta in their receptors(g/t T cells). They are prominent in the GI tract.
CD8 occurs on the surface of cytotoxic T cells that bind MHC-1 proteins, and CD4 occurs on the surface of helper T cells that bind MHC-11 proteins. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is immunologic synapse?
The T cell receptors are surrounded by adhesion molecules and proteins that bind to complementary proteins in the APC when the 2 cells transiently join to form the immunological synapse, that permits T cell activation to occur.
B cells can bind antigens directly, but they must contact helper T cells to produce full activation and antibody formation. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Infacct, it is the TH2 subtype that is mainly involved. helper T cells are pushed along the TH2 line by the cytokine IL-4.
What does IL-12 do?
It pushes helper T cells along the TH-1 line.
IL-2 acts as an autocrine fashion to cause activated T cells to proliferate.
What are monoclonal antibodies?
Large quantities of the immunoglobin produced by a single plasma cell can be obtained by fusing the cell with a tumor cell, producing an antibody factory.
How are monoclonal antibodies obtained?
Animals are immunized with a particular antigen or cell preparation. The antibody producing cells are extracted from their spleens and fused to myeloma cells.
Myelomas are B lymphocyte tumors that readily fuse with plasma cells to form antibody forming hybridomas, which grow and produce very well. the fused cells are separated and each starts a clone of cells descended from a single cell.