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10 Cards in this Set

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What are kinins?
Two related vasodilator peptides called kinins are found in the body. One is a nonapeptide called bradykinin, and the other is a decapeptide lyslbradykinin.
What are kallikreins?
These are proteases that release the peptides from their precursors. There are 2 types of kallikreins;
plasma kallikrein/tissue kallikrein.
Where are these kallikreins found?
Tissue K. is found in many tissues including sweat and salivary glands, the pancreas and prostate, the intestine and kidneys. Tissue K. will eventually be converted to bradykinin and lysllbradykinin.
Plasma K. circulates in the blood in the inactive form.
Prekallikrein is converted to the active form, kallikrein, by active factor X11, which initiates the intrinsic blood clotting cascade.
What are the actions of kinins?
Their reactions resemble those of histamine and are primarily tissue hormones.
They cause contraction of visceral smooth muscle, but they relax smooth muscle via NO, lowering blood pressure.
They increase capillary permeability, attract leukocytes and cause pain upon injection under the skin.
Two bradykinin receptors B1 and B2 have been identified. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
What is Adrenomedullin?
It is a depressor polypeptide first isolated from pheochromocytoma cells.
It inhibits aldosterone secretion in salt depleted animals and appears to produce its depressor effect by increasing production of NO.
What is ANP?
The atrial natriuretic peptide secreted by the heart antagonizes the action of various vasoconstrictor agents and lowers blood pressure.
The natriuretic Na+-K+ ATPase inhibitor, which is thought to be endogenously produced ouabain, apparently raises rather than lowers blood pressure. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Vasopressin is a potent vasoconstrictor. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE. Yet, when it is injected in normal individuals, there is compensating decrease in cardiac output.
Norepinephrine has a generalized vasoconstrictor action, whereas epinephrine dilates the vessels in skeletal muscle and the liver.
What is Urotensin-11?
It is a polypeptide first isolated from the spinal cord of fish, is present in cardiac and vascular tissue. It is one of the most potent mammalian vasoconstrictors known, but its physiological role is uncertain.