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15 Cards in this Set

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synapse
a microscopic (nanometer) gap where communication occurs through chmicals called neurotransmitters
temporal summation
time- repeates stimulation from ONE presynaptic neuron occuring within a breif period of time
spatial summation
cummulative effect upon a postsynaptic neuron of SIMULTANEAUS STIMULATIO FROM SEVERAL presynaptic neurons
loewi found that...
frog experiment led to finding that synaptic transmissons are chemical
neurotrasmitters
chemicals which relese from presynaptic neuron that diffuse across the synapse
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)
graded dpolarization of a neuron that occurs when the active sodium gates open for a brief period of time. Sodium ions rush into the neuron and a positive charge moves across the neural membrane via electronic flow toward the axon hillock
Decromental
loosing strength as it travels-flow is electronic
graded
stronger stim=stonger sxcitation

weaker stim= weaker excitation
Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP)
graded hyperpolarization of neuron happens when active potassium or chlorine gates to open for a breif period of time. potassium leaves. leads to a negative charge moving across the neural membrane
spontaneus firing rate
the ability of a neuron to produce an action potential without synaptic input. In this case, EPSPs ans IPSPs increase or decrease the spontaneous firing of the neuron
vesicles
spherical shped packet where neurotransmtters are stored on the axon terminal
microtubules
transporter of nerotransmitters from cell body to axon terminal
exocytosis
out of the cell, during this the vesicles move to the neural membrane and rupture spilling the neurotransmitters intos the synaptic gap/cleft
ionotrophic effects
nuerotransmitter binds to a receptor causing the immediate opening of an ion gate

super fast
directly effects ion
metabotrophic effects
effects metabolism most prevalent type of effect

neurotasmitter binds to a receptor and alters the configuration of the rest of the receptor protein; enabling a portion of the protein inside the neuron to reac with other molecules

slower longer lasting

often depend on the actions of seconf messangers