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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are 3 ways to characterize "maleness" and "femaleness"?
genetic sex (XX vs XY)
gonadal sex (ovaries vs testes)
phenotypic sex (internal genital tract and external genitalia)
What are the three types of cells present in male gonads?
germ cells, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells
What are the three types of cells present in female gonads?
germ cells, theca cells, granulosa cells
Where are the main fuctions of Sertoli cells, and what are they stimulated by?
to synthesize anti-mullerian hormone, to support/protect/nourish developing spermatogenic cells; stimulated by FSH
What is the main function of Leydig cells, and what are they stimulated by?
to produce testosterone; stim by LH (and prolactin, which induces expression of LH receptor)

(located in intertubular space of testes)
Where in the ovary are granulosa cells located, histologically?
between the zona pellucida and basal lamina of developing oocyte
Where in the ovary are theca cells located, histologically?
outside the basal lamina of developing oocyte (cellular capsule)
What is the function of the theca cells, and what are they stimulated by?
produce androstenedione (and progesterone during the luteal phase); stimulated by LH
What is the function of the granulosa cells, and what are they stimulated by?
convert androstenedione to estradiol; stimulated by FSH

acquire LH receptors in graafian follicle, essential for luteinization
What are the 2 key differences between male and female gonads that influence phenotypic sex?
testes secrete anti-mullerian hormone and testosterone
What structures are included in the male internal genital tract?
prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, epididymis
What structures are included in the male external genitalia?
scrotum and penis
What structures are included in the female internal genital tract?
fallopian tubes, uterus, upper third of vagina
What structures are included in the female external genitalia?
lower 2/3 of vagina, labia majora and minora, clitoris
What hormonal mechanisms direct the development of the MALE internal genital tract?
testosterone stimulates wolffian ducts to become int. gen. tract

anti-mullerian hormone causes atrophy of mullerian ducts
What hormonal mechanisms direct the development of the MALE external genitalia?
depends on testosterone (which must be converted to dihydrotestosterone), and presence of androgen receptors on target tissues
What hormonal mechanisms direct the development of the FEMALE internal genital tract?
no testosterone = no development of wolffian ducts

no anti-mullerian hormone = development of mullerian ducts
What hormonal mechanisms direct the development of the FEMALE external genitalia?
none are required, but growth to normal size requires estrogen
What happens if a female is exposed to high levels of androgens in utero when external genitalia are differentiating? What if exposure occurs after differentiation?
develops male external genitalia; female phenotype remains, perhaps enlarged clitoris
What primary hormonal event induces puberty?
pulsatile secretion of GnRH (drives pulsatile secretion of LH and FSH)
What positive feedback mechanism is GnRH involved in, early in puberty?
GnRH upregulates own a/p receptor
What are the relative levels of FSH and LH in childhood, during/after puberty, and in old age?
low, FSH > LH; increase LH > FSH; low again FSH > LH
What are the effects of increased LH/FSH at puberty?
increases s/c of estradiol and testosterone -> development of secondary sex characteristics

(inc testost from Leydig cell proliferation)