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56 Cards in this Set

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A researcher is interested in describing a behavior by studying how the brain functions. This explanation is classified as:
A. ontogenetic

B. evolutionary

C. physiological

D. functional
Which type of explanation describes how a structure or behavior develops?
A. physiological

B. ontogenetic

C. evolutionary

D. functional
How are biological psychology and cosmology related?
Cosmologists ask why matter exists and biological psychologists ask how it relates to behavior.
A. They both explain evolution.

B. Cosmologists ask why matter exists and biological psychologists ask how it relates to behavior.

C. Cosmologists predict future events, while biological psychologists explain past events.

D. There is no relationship between them.
Which of the following is true about genetic drift?
It occurs more often in small populations.
A. It occurs more often in large populations.

B. It occurs when species move to a new location.

C. It takes thousands of years to happen.

D. It occurs more often in small populations.
In certain species of song birds, development of the song requires the opportunity to hear the appropriate song during a sensitive period in life as well as genes to prepare them to hear the song. This is a/an _____ explanation of birdsong.
A. physiological

B. ontogenetic

C. evolutionary

D. functional
Dualism is the belief that...
Mind and body are different in substance.
A. mind and body are one and the same

B. mind is an accidental byproduct of brain functioning.

C. mind and body are different in substance.

D. the mind does not exist.
A monist believes that mind and body are...
The same thing.
A. the same thing.

B. separate but overlapping.

C. separate but interact.

D. two distinct entities, with no connection whatsoever.
Units of heredity that maintain their structural identity from one generation to another are:
A. enzymes

B. mutations

C. nucleic acids

D. genes
Chromosomes consist of large, double-stranded moelcules of:
Deoxyribonucleic acid
A. deoxyribonucleic acid

B. ribonucleic acid

C. autosomal genes

D. recombination genes
Recessive genes manifest their effects only when the individual is ____ for them.
A. sex limited

B. homosapien

C. homozygous

D. heterozygous
A baby's chromosomal makeup indicates one pair is XX. What is the sex of this baby?
A. male

B. female

C. a male with a genetic disease

D. a female with a genetic disease
A heritability of 1 indicates that differences in heredity are responsible for what ercent of the observed variations in some characteristic?
A. 0

B. 1

C. 50

D. 100
According to one estimate, the average adult human brain contains ______ neurons.
100 billion.
A. 10,000
B. 100,000
C. 1 billion
D. 100 billion
The nervous system cell which receives and transmits information is called a:
A. neuron
B. glial cell
C. mitochondria
D. ribosome
What are the two kinds of cells in the nervous system?
neurons and glia
A. neurons and glia
B. dendrites and axons
C. ribosomes and lysosomes
D. neurons and axons.
Ribosomes are the part of a cell that:
synthesizes new proteins
A. performs metabolic activities
B. breaks down harmful chemicals
C. transports proteins
D. synthesizes new proteins.
What receives excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses to muscle or gland cells?
motor neurons
A. sensory neurons
B. motor neurons
C. dendrites
D. dendritic spines
Which of the following is a characteristic of a dendrite?
it tapers as it gets further from the body
A. it can be up to a meter long
B. it tapers as it gets further from the body
C. it may be covered with a myelin sheath
D. it carries information away from the cell body
The part of the neuron which contains the ribosomes is the:
A. axon
B. dendrite
C. soma
D. presynaptic terminal
Compared to dendrites, axons usually:
are covered with myelin
A. form the information-receiving pole of the neuron
B. are shorter than the dendrites
C. are covered with myelin
D. taper in diamter toward their periphery
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an axon?
it carries information toward the cell body
A. it can be up to a meter long
B. it has a constant diamter
C. it carries information toward the cell body
D. it may be covered with a myelin sheath
One type of glia helps synchronize the activity of neurons. They are called:
A. oligodendrocytes
B. astrocytes
C. radial glia
D. schwann cells
At synapse, the cell that receives the stimulation is called the presynaptic neuron.
The chemicals used as neurotransmitters vary widely across species.
Myelination of the brain and spinal cord is complete by birth.
If you fell asleep on a sunny beach lying on your stomach, then your dorsal side would likely be sunburned.
Although relatively small, the hypothalamus is very important for a wide range of behaviors.
The most common cause of brain damage in children is closed head injury.
The temporal lobe contains the primary motor cortex.
Paralysis caused by spinal cord injury is usually only temporary in humans.
The speed of conduction through a reflex arc is ____ the speed of conduction of an action potential.
Slower than.
A. equal to

B. faster than

C. slower than

D. modified by
What does the abbreviation EPSP stand for?
excitatory postsynaptic potential.
A. excitatory presynaptic potential

B. excitatory partial synaptic process

C. extended presynaptic potential

D. excitatory postsynaptic potential
If you eat a food containing tryptophan, what can you consume with it to increase its entry into the brain?
A. phenylalanine

B. carbohydrates

C. fats

D. thiamine
What does the term "limbic" mean with respect to the limbic system?
A. complexity

B. explansion

C. bark

D. border
What is a lesion?
An area that has been damaged.
A. an area of brain next to a blood vessel

B. a cell that lines a surface of a ventricle

C. a fluid-filled space in the brain

D. an area that has been damaged
Which of the following would produce spatial summation?
Present two or more weak stimuli at the same time.
A. Present two or more weak stimuli at the same time.

B. Start action potentials at both ends of one axon at the same time.

C. Do not allow flexor muscles to relax before stimulating it again.

D. Present a rapid sequence of weak stimuli.
Which of the following methods is dependent on injecting a radioactive chemical into the blood?



D. magnetic stimulation
Central nervous system axons regenerate much better in fish than in mammals because:
Fish do not produce as much scar tissue.
A. fish nerves do not have to travel so far to reach their target

B. fewer fish nerves are covered with myelin

C. fish do not produce as much scar tissue

D. fish generally have a lower body temperature
Suppose a positive correlation is found between intelligence and the size of the frontal lobe of the brain. Which of the following statements would be the most accurate?
As frontal lobe size increases, so does intelligence.
A. a large frontal lobe causes a person to be more intelligent

B. being intelligent causes a person to have large frontal lobes

C. intelligence and frontal lobe sizes are unrelated

D. as frontal lobe size increases, so does intelligence.
Ischemia is to ______ as hemorrhage is to _______.
Obstruction; rupture.
A. older individuals; younger individuals

B. proximal; distal

C. obstruction; rupture

D. barely noti
Competition of neurons for postsynaptic sites results in survival of only the most successful axons. This general principle is called:
Neural Darwinism.
A. natural selection

B. evolution

C. apoptosis

D. neural Darwinism
Programmed mechanism of cell death is called

B. apoptosis

C. neurotophin

Light from the right side of the world strikes the left side of the retina.
There are many more rods than cones in the human retina.
According to the trichromatic theory, we can perceive only three colors.
Simple cells are found exclusively in the primary visual cortex.
Magnocellular ganglion cells transmit infomration about an object's color.
What is a receptor potential?
A local depolarization or hyperpolarization of a receptor membrane.
A. a local depolarization or hyperpolarization of a receptor membrane

B. the potential that a receptor has to develop into a mature cell

C. the potential that a receptor has to absorb energy

D. conscious awareness of sensation
Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the:
A. retina

B. cornea

C. pupil

D. macula
The central portion of the macula
Is specialized for acute, detailed vision.
A. is where the optic nerve exits the back of the eyeball

B. is specialized for actue, detailed vision

C. contains mostly rods

D. contains many blood vessels and ganglion cell axons
What retinal cells contain photopigments?
Rods and cones.
A. amacrine cells

B. horizontal cells

C. cones only

D. rods and cones
Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?
To the lateral geniculate nucleus.
A. directly to the cerebral cortex

B. to the lateral geniculate nucleus

C. to the superior colliculus

D. directly to the occipital lobe
Once within the cerebral cortex, the parvocellular pathway continues as a pathway sensitive to:
Details of shape.
A. details of shape

B. depth

C. distance

D. dark adaptation
The primary visual cortex is also known as the
Striate cortex.
A. lateral geniculate nucleus

B. striate cortex

C. area V2

D. dark adaptation.
Damage to the dorsal stream may interfere with:
Reaching out to grasp an object.
A. describing what is seen

B. perceiving the movement of an object

C. remembering something seen at a previous time

D. reaching out to grasp an object
Neurons responding specifically to faces have been found in the
Inferior temporal cortex.
A. inferior temporal cortex

B. inferior parietal cortex

C. lateral geniculate nucleus

D. striate cortex