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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 broad types of cardiac muscle
atrial muscle
ventricular muscle
"specialized" cardiac muscle
-pacemaker areas
-high conduction speed pathways
-low conduction speed pathways
5 essential functions of the heart
1) self nutrition via coronary arteries
2) regular and controlled excitation
3) effective contraction and relaxation of muscle
4) an effective intra-cardiac blood flow path
5) regulation of "preload" (right and left atrial pressure)
5 broad pathophysiological categories of the heart
ischemic heart disease
valve and septal defects
congestive heart failure
Fast response cells are characteristic of
atrial, ventricular, and Purkinje system muscle cells
Slow response cells are characteristics of
pacemaker cells of the SA and AV nodes
What is the coupling agent in excitation-contraction coupling in myocardium
calcium ion
P wave is caused by
excitation (depolarization) of atrial cells
QRS wave is caused by
excitation of ventricular cells
T wave is caused by
repolarization of the ventricular cells.
3 periods during "diastole"
period of "rapid inflow" or "rapid filling"
period of "diastasis"
period of "atrial systole"
3 periods during "systole"
period of "isovolumic contraction"
period of "ejection"
period of "isovolumic relaxation"
Stroke volume (SV) =
end diastolic volume
end systolic volume
Guyton's numeric value for normal value range for SV (stroke volume)
30-65 ml/beat
EF =
ejection fraction = fraction of the end diastolic volume of the ventricle that is ejected per beat as stroke volume.

Normal Range = 46-50%
Name the 4 cardiac valves
tricuspid valve (right ventricle)
mitral valve (left ventricle)
Pulmonic valve (right)
Aortic valve (left)
when the A-V valves open incompletely
When the A-V valves close incompletely it's called
Functional purpose of papillary muscles and chordae tendineae?
prevents A-V valve collapse
Stroke work is defined as
cardiac work per heart beat
What is the normal maximum efficiency of the heart?
What is the major chemical fuel for the heart?
fatty acids
Specialized cardiac muscle consists of....
The S-A Node
3 Internodal Pathways
The A-V Node
“Purkinje System”:
-Common bundle of His (AV bundle)
-Rt & Lt bundle branches
-Purkinje fibers
Crohn's Disease
inflammatory disease of submucosa, can be transmural

affects terminal ileum and proximal colon

etiology unknown

pathological changes in wall of gut:
granulomatous lesions
inflammation, fibrosis and thickening palpable masses
decreased surface area, MALABSORPTION, DIARRHEA,

<small intestine>
Celiac Disease
Allergic disease: hypersensitivity to gluten

Pathology of mucosa:
Jejunal wall infiltrated with inflammatory cells
Intestinal villi atrophy
Bowel wall becomes smooth

Loss of mucosal function  MALABSORPTION

Managed with low gluten diet

<small intestine>
Diverticular Disease
outpouchings of colonic mucosa between bundles of smooth muscle

diverticula can perforate producing inflammation DIVERTICULITIS, PAIN

clinically can produce constipation and bloody stools; abscess formation and fibrosis
ECF is termed "what" by physiologists and clinicians?

What is considered "external" to the body?
Internal environment.

3 tracts: respiratory, GI, uro-genital tracts.
4 systems involved shiefly with control of ECF volume, composition, and temperature
3 systems involved chiefly with our body's internal communication:
visceral motor (ANS)
visceral sensory
endocrine system
5 systems involved chiefly with sensing and/or responding to our body's external environment.
somatic nervous
special senses
skeletal muscle and bone
reproductive system