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116 Cards in this Set

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atomic number 1
H hydrogen
atomic number 6
C carbon
atomic number 7
N nitrogen
atomic number 8
O oxygen
atomic number 11
Na sodium
atomic number 12
Mg magnesium
atomic number 15
P phosphorus
atomic number 16
S sulfur
atomic number 17
Cl chlorine
atomic number 19
K potassium
atomic number 20
Ca calcium
what are the 4 major essential lelements
CHON
what does a lack of iodine in the diet cause
low thyroid hormone production
what does a deficiency of chromium in the body cause (not proven)
DM
what does the atomic number signify
the number of protons
what does atomic mass signify
# of protons plus # of neutrons
what is Cr
chromium, atomic number 24
what is an isotope
a single element that has variations with different numbers of neutrons
what's a radioisotope
unstable isotopes that emit energy in the form of radiation
what is the field of dx and tx of disease using radioisotopes
nuclear medicine
what is an energy level or shell?
where the electrons live in the atom.
which energy level is the lowest, closest or furthest from nucleus?
closest (think of runners on a track)
how is an energy level broken down?
into sublevels (spdf) and those into orbitals
how many electrons can an orbital hold?
2 max
what is the most stable elctron configuration for an element
when all the orbitals in the outer shell (valence) are filled with electrons
what's a high energy electron
an electron that jumps up one+ energy levels, unstable, eventually falls back to stable config, releasing energy
what happens with unpaired electrons in an orbital
they tend to either gain or lose an electron to pair up
what are chemical bonds?
transfer of sharing of electrons between atoms, creating MOLECULES
what's the difference between a molecule and a compound
compound contains >1 element
how is molecular weight calculated
atomic mass x # of atoms.
what are the 2 strong types of chemical bonds
covalent and ionic
what are the 2 weak types of chemical bonds
hydrogen bonds and van der waals forces
what is a covalent bond
2 atoms sharing a pair of electrons (1 from each). require energy to break bonds. most prevalent bond.
how do you know how many covalent bonds an atom will form?
# of unpaired electrons in valence = @ of covalent bonds to be formed
what is a double bond?
if adjacent atoms share 2 pairs x electronis instead of just 1
what is a functional group
atom combos that occur repeatedly, move as a unit, attach with single covalent bond
what's a hydroxyl group
-OH functional group
what's a carboxyl acid
-COOH functional group
what's an amino group
-NH2
what's a phosphate group?
-H2PO4
what is a free radical
molecule, 1+ unpaired electron in valence, steals 1 from another atom, leaving it unpaired, and so on. can disrupt normal cell function.
what is an antioxidant
molecule, gives electron to free radical without becoming one.
what are common molecular shapes
chain (acids), ring (glucose), double helix (dna)
what's a polar molecule
electrons spend > time c 1 atom in molecule --> slightly more (-), leaving the other atom/s more (+). overall molecule = neutral. DISSOLVE IN WATER.
what elements tend to cause polarity
nitrogen and oxygen
what is an ion (and 2 names)
charged atom. (+) = cation. (-) = anion
what is an ionic bond? name one.
chemical bond between cation and anion. Na+Cl-
5 important cations of body
Na+, K+, Ca++, H+, Mg++
4 important anions of body
Cl- (chloride),
HCO3-(bicarb),
HPO4-- (phosphate),
SO4-- (sulfate)
do non-ionic atoms of the important cations exist in the body? (Na, Ca....)
ask Dr. Chu
what is a hydrogen bond (& what elements are involved)
atom of hydrogen bonding to another atom (oxygen, nitrogen, flourine) intra or inter-molecular
atomic number 9
F flourine
what causes surface tension of water
hydrogen bond
what are van der waals bond
weakest bond, between 1 atom's nucleus and another's electrons; work with hydrogen bonds to hold chon's together
solutes, solvents, solution
solute dissolved by solvent in solution
what's the basic chemical formula for a carb
(ch2o)n
what's the chemical formula for glucose
C6H12O6
what does -ose signify
simple sugar
what are the 2 types of simple sugars
monosaccharides and disaccharides
what are the building blox of complex carbs
monosaccharides
how many carbons do monosaccharides have
5 or 6
name 4 monosax
ribose, glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose
name 3 disax
maltose, lactose, sucrose
what's a polysaccharide
large molecule made of glucose molecules joined together
what's a large molecule made up of repeating units
polymer
what's the difference between polysaccharides
the manner the glucose molecules are linked
all living cells store ______ for energy
glucose in the form of a polysaccharide
what is the animal cell storage polysaccharide
glycogen
where is glycogen found
in all animal cells, q tissue in body
what are the 2 forms of polysax that plants make
cellulose (structure) starch (storage)
all orangic molecules contain
carbon
biomolecules are
organic molecules in living things
what is the most abundant biomolecule
carbs
what is the most diverse biomolecule
lipids
what are the 4 types of lipids
true lipids, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids
what's glycerol
simple 3-carbon molecule
what's a fatty acid
long carbon chain molecule bound to hydrogens with carboxyl (-cooh) group at one end of chain
what's a saturated fatty acid
no double bonds between carbons
what's a monosaturated fatty acid
one double bond between carbons in the molecule
what's a polyunsaturated fatty acid
more than 1 double bond between carbons in the molecule
what's a monoglyceride
fatty acid linked to glycerol
what's a triglyceride
triacylglycerol - most important lipid in body, 90% are in this form. high level is predictor of artery disease
what's a phospholipid
diglyceride with a phosphate group attached to the single carbon that lacks a fatty acid. makes up cell membrane
what's a steroid
lipid related molecule with 4 linked carbon rings. made of cholesterol. part of cell membrane.
what's an eicosanoid
modified 20-carbon fatty acid. mainly thromboxanes, leukotrienes, prostoglandins. regulate various physiological functions
what's the most versatile biomolecule
proteins
what are proteins made of
amino acids
what's an amino acid
central carbon atom linked to hydrogen atom, amino group, carboxyl group and R group
what's the R group
variable in proteins
what are essential amino acids
9 amino acids tha tmust be obtained from diet
what is the major dietary source of nitrogen
protein
are there amino acids that aren't part of proteins
yes homocsteine, GABA, creatine
what's a peptide bond
linked amino acids (2 to 9)
what's a polypeptide
10 - 100 amino acids linked together
what's a protein
100+ amino acids
what's the primary structure of a protein
the sequence of amino acids
what's the 2ndary structure of a protein
spacial arrangement of the amino acids in the chain
what's the tertiary structure of a protein
3 dimensional shape
what are te 2 shape classifications of proteins
globular (ball-like) or fibrous (sheets or chains wound around each other)
what's a quaternary structure of a protein
more than 1 polypeptide chain (multiple subunits)
what is gamma radiation
high energy waves that penetrate matter deeply like xrays
what is RNA polymerase
enzyme needed for synthesis of mRNA from DNA
what's a conjugated protein
molecules of protein combines with either lipid or carbohydrate
what's a prostaglandin
lipid derived molecules that act as physiological regulators
what's ribose
a pentose sugar
what's a beta-pleated sheet
sheet like structure formed from some chains of amino acids
what's a phospholipid
diglyceride with phosphate attached to the single carbon that lacks a fatty acid
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
molecule that captures and transfers energy with high energy electrons
surface tension of water
hydrogen bonds between water molecules that make it difficult to separate them
eicosanoid
modified 20-carbon fatty acids that act as regulators of physiological functions
NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucelotide)
molecule that captures and transfers energy with high-energy electrons
solute
molecules that dissove in solvent to make solution
galactose
hexose monosaccharide
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
nucleotide, stores genetic info in nucleus
cortisol
steroid hormone from adrenal cortex. regulates metabolism, esp during stress
monounsaturated fatty acid
fatty acid with one double bond