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45 Cards in this Set

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what's an aqueous solution
water based, resembles dilute seawater, na+, k+, cl-
highly soluble molecules
hydrophilic, polar or ionic
molecules with low solubility
hydrophobic, non-polar, lipids
how do lipids dissolve in body fluids
combine with hydrophlic molecule to carry them into solution
concentration of a solution =
amount of solute per mL or L of solution
what's a mole (2)
quantity: 6.02 x 10(23rd) of something
how much does a mole weigh (2)
molecular weight in grams = gram molecular weight
what is molarity (4 concepts)
solution concentration = @ of moles of solute in 1 L of solution = mol/L = M
how are solute concentrations usually expressed (3)
millimoles per L = mmol/L = mM
how do you determine molecular weight
atomic mass (must look up) x # of atoms for each element in molecule
what's the difference of molecular weight and gram molecular weight
numbers same but amu vs. g
where are the answers to the running problem
ask dr. chu
how are solute concentrations of ions expressed
eq/L (equivalents/Liter) OR meq/L (milliequivalent = 1/1000 of eq)= molarity of ion x # of charges ion carries
what is percent solution and when is it used
parts of solute per 100 parts of total solution; labs/rx
how is percent solution used for liquids
volume/volume
how is percent solution used for solids
weight/volume
what is the common way of expressing concentrations of drugs &/or chemicals in body
mg/dL (1/1000 gram per 1/10 Liter)
what's a hydrogen ion
H+ = 1 proton
where do hydrogen ions come from
h2o separated into oh- and h+ OR ionized molecule that dissolves in water and releases H+ ions (ACID)
what is an acid
molecule that when dissolved in water releases an H+
what do hydrogen ions do?
interfere with hydrogen bonding and van der waals forces --> changes shape of molecule --> molecule cannot function
what are bases?
molecules that pick up the free h+
what is pH
power of hydrogen = inversely proportional to H+ concentration in body fluids (higher h+ concentration = lower pH) 7=neutral. >7=alkaline. <7=acidic
what is the normal pH of human blood? what are fatal levels?
7.35 - 7.45 (slightly alkalaine.) below 7.0 and above 7.7 are fatal
what is a buffer
molecule that changes pH. usually anions looking for h+ to bind to --> less h+ floating around --> raises pH
what's the most important buffer in body?
bicarb = hco3- =combines with free h+
what are organic molecules
molecules containing carbon
what are organic molecules within living organisms?
biomolecules
what are the 4 kinds of biomolecules
proteins, fats, carbs, nucleotides
what are proteins, fats, and carbs for?
used by the body for energy, building blocks for cellular components
what are nucleotides; name some
structural components of genetic material; compounds that carry energy or regulate metabolism. dna & rna, atp and cAMP respectively
which are the most abundant biomolecules
carbs
what is the chemical structure of a carb
(ch2o)n = carbon + water
what is the suffix for any simple sugar
-ose
what are the 2 kinds of simple sugars
monosaccharides and disaccharides
what are monosaccharides
one sugar; building blocks of complex carbs; 5 or 6 carbons
name 4 monosaccharides
ribose, glucose (dextrose,) fructose, galactose
how is a disaccharide molecule formed
2 monosaccharides bonding
name 3 disaccharides
maltose, lactose, sucrose
what are more than 2 monosaccharides bound together (3)
polysaccharides = complex carbohydrates = glucose polymers
what is a large molecule made of repeating units called
polymer
all living cells store ______ for energy (2)
glucose (as a polysaccharide)
what is the storage polysaccharide in animal cells that is found in all body tissues called
glycogen
what are the 2 polysaccharides that plants make?
starch for storage. cellulose for structure.
which polysaccharide of plants can human digest and which is undigestible?
we can digest starch. we cannot digest cellulose (FIBER)