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### 42 Cards in this Set

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 PROJECTILE DEFINITION ANY OBJECT THAT IS PROJECTED BY SOME MEANS AND CONTINUES IN MOTION BY ITS OWN INERTIA HORIZONTAL COMPONENT OF PROJECTILE VELOCITY (NEGATING FRICTION) -NO HORIZONTAL FORCE, VELOCITY IS CONSTANT -MOVES FROM OWN INERTIA -COVERS EQUAL DISTANCES IN EQUAL INTERVALS OF TIME VERTICAL COMPONENT OF PROJECTILE VELOCITY -EXACTLY THE SAME AS AN OBJECT FALLING FREELY DOWN -FASTER OBJECT FALLS, GREATER DISTANCE COVERED EACH SUCCESSIVE SECOND -MOVING UPWARD THEN VERTICAL DISTANCES TRAVELED DECREASE W/ TIME ON THE WAY UP CURVED PATH OF PROJECTILE (NEGATING AIR DRAG) -COMBINATION OF HORIZONTAL/VERTICAL MOTION -COMPLETELY INDEPENDANT OF EACH OTHER -CONSTANT HORIZONTAL VELOCITY IS NOT AFFECTED BY VERTICAL FORCE OF GRAVITY PROJECTILES LAUNCHED HORIZONTALLY -HORIZONTAL COMPONENT OF VELOCITY DOESN'T CHANGE AS OBJECT MOVES FORWARD -TRAVELS SAME HORIZONTAL DISTANCE IN EQUAL TIMES, AS IF IT WERE ROLLING ON TABLE -NO GRAVITATIONAL FORCE ACTING HORIZONTALLY -GRAVITY ACTS DOWNWARD, SO GRAVITATION IS DOWNWARD -VERTICAL POSITIONS BECOME FARTHER APART WITH TIME -VERTICAL DISTANCES SAME AS IF BALL WAS DROPPED PARABOLA DEFINITION TRAJECTORY OF A PROJECTILE THAT ACCLERATES ONLY IN THE VERTICAL DIRECTION WHILE MOVING AT A CONSTANT HORIZONTAL VELOCITY PROJECTILES LAUNCHED AT ANGLE -IF NO GRAVITY THEN WOULD FOLLOW STRAIGHT LINE PATH -FALLS BENEATH STRAIGHT LINE PATH UNTIL IT HITS GROUND -VERTICAL DISTANCE FALLS UNDERNEATH STRAIGHT LINE IS THE SAME AMOUNT IT WOULD FALL IF DROPPED FORMULA FOR DISTANCE PROJECTILE FALLS d = ½ gt² g = 10 m/s d = ½ (10 m/s) t² d = 5t² PROJECTILES WITH SAME LAUNCHING SPEED AND DIFFERENT ANGLES -REACH DIFFERENT ALTITUDES -HAVE DIFFERENT HORIZONTAL RANGES -SAME RANGE IS OBTAINED FROM TWO DIFFERENT LAUNCHING ANGLES WHEN THE ANGLES ADD UP TO 90˚ -SMALLER ANGLE OBJECT RAMAINS IN AIR FOR SHORTER TIME PROJECTILES WITH SAME LAUNCHING SPEED AND DIFFERENT ANGLES EXAMPLE -OBJECT THROWN WITH 60˚ WILL HAVE SAME RANGE IF THROWN FROM 30˚ ANGLE WITH MAXIMUM PROJECTILE RANGE 45˚ PROJECTILES LAUNCHED AT ANGLE -IF NO GRAVITY THEN WOULD FOLLOW STRAIGHT LINE PATH -FALLS BENEATH STRAIGHT LINE PATH UNTIL IT HITS GROUND -VERTICAL DISTANCE FALLS UNDERNEATH STRAIGHT LINE IS THE SAME AMOUNT IT WOULD FALL IF DROPPED FORMULA FOR DISTANCE PROJECTILE FALLS d = ½ gt² g = 10 m/s d = ½ (10 m/s) t² d = 5t² PROJECTILES WITH SAME LAUNCHING SPEED AND DIFFERENT ANGLES -REACH DIFFERENT ALTITUDES -HAVE DIFFERENT HORIZONTAL RANGES -SAME RANGE IS OBTAINED FROM TWO DIFFERENT LAUNCHING ANGLES WHEN THE ANGLES ADD UP TO 90˚ -SMALLER ANGLE OBJECT RAMAINS IN AIR FOR SHORTER TIME PROJECTILES WITH SAME LAUNCHING SPEED AND DIFFERENT ANGLES EXAMPLE -OBJECT THROWN WITH 60˚ WILL HAVE SAME RANGE IF THROWN FROM 30˚ ANGLE WITH MAXIMUM PROJECTILE RANGE 45˚ PROJECTILES LAUNCHED AT ANGLE VERTICLE TIME -A PROJECTILE WILL RISE TO ITS MAXIMUM HEIGHT IN THE SAME TIME IT TAKES TO FALL FROM THAT HEIGHT (NEGATING AIR DRAG) -DECELERATION BY GRAVITY WHILE GOING UP IS SAME AS ACCELERATION BY GRAVITY COMING DOWN SATELLITE DEFINITION -PROJECTILE THAT FALLS AROUND THE EARTH INSTEAD OF INTO IT. SATELLITE CHARACTERISTICS EXPLANATION -SPEED MUST BE GREAT ENOUGH TO MAKE FALLING DISTANCE MATCH CURVATURE OF THE EARTH CURVATURE OF EARTH -DROPS A VERTICAL DISTANCE OF 5 METERS FOR EVERY 8000 METERS TANGENT TO THE SURFACE SATELLITE SPEED 8 km PER SECOND (29000 km/hr or 18000 mph) SATELLITE W/ CIRCULAR ORBIT -ALWAYS MOVES IN A DIRECTION PERPINDICULAR TO GRAVITY -NO CHANGE IN SPEED OCCURS, JUST CHANGE IN DIRECTION SATELLITE DISTANCE/TIME -CLOSE TO EARTH 90 MINUTE ORBIT -HIGHER ALTITUDES ORBITAL SPEED IS LESS PATH (DISTANCE) IS MORE PERIOD IS LONGER SPEED FOR SATELLITE IN ORBIT FORMULA v = √GM/d (G IS UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT (M IS MASS OF THE EARTH) (d IS DISTANCE OF SATELLITE FROM CENTER OF THE EARTH) PERIOD OF SATELLITE MOTION FORMULA T = 2Π√d³/GM (G IS UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT (M IS MASS OF THE EARTH) (d IS DISTANCE OF SATELLITE FROM CENTER OF THE EARTH) ELLIPSE DEFINITION -OVAL PATH -SPECIFIC CURVE -CLOSED PATH TAKE BY A POINT THAT MOVES SO THAT THE SUM OF ITS DISTANCES FROM TWO FIXED POINTS (FOCI) IS CONSTANT FOCI DEFINITION TWO FIXED POINTS ELLIPTICAL ORBIT CHARACTERISTICS -SPEED VARIES -SATELLITE OVERSHOOTS A CIRCULAR PATH AND MOVES AWAY FROM EARTH -LOSES SPEED AGAINST FORCE OF GRAVITY -REGAINS SPEED AS IT FALLS BACK TOWARD THE EARTH -REJOINS PATH WITH SAME INITIAL SPEED -ALL ELLIPSES HAVE EARTH CENTER AS ONE FOCUS PROJECTILE PATH RELATIONSHIP TO ELLIPSE PARABOLIC PATH OF A PROJECTILE IS A TINY SEGMENT OF A SKINNY ELLIPS THAT EXTENDS WITHIN AND JUST BEYOND THE CENTER OF THE EARTH KEPLERS FIRST LAW OF PLANETARY MOTION THE PATH OF EACH PLANET AROUND THE SUN IS AN ELLIPSE WITH THE SUN AT ONE FOCUS KEPLERS SECOND LAW OF PLANETARY MOTION THE LINE FROM THE SUN TO ANY PLANET SWEEPS OUT EQUAL AREAS OF SPACE IN EQUAL TIME INTERVALS -TRIANGULAR AREA COVERED DURING A MONTH WHEN A PLANET IS ORBITING FAR AWAY FROM THE SUN IS EQUAL TO THE AREA WHEN THE PLANET IS CLOSER. KEPLERS THIRD LAW OF PLANETARY MOTION THE SQUARE OF THE ORBITAL PERIOD OF A PLANET IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE CUBE OF THE AVERAGE DISTANCE OF THE PLANET FROM THE SUN (T² ~ r³ FOR ALL PLANETS) SATELLITE ORBIT VS GRAVITY -MOVES SLOWER AGAINST THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD -MOVES QUICKER WITH THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ENERGY CONSERVATION AND SATELLITE MOTION CIRCULAR ORBIT -A SATELLITE ALWAYS HAS KE AND PE -IN CIRCULAR ORBITS DISTANCE BETWEEN SATELLITE AND THE CENTER OF ATTRACTING BODY DOESN'T CHANGE -PE IS THE SAME EVERYWHERE IN ORBIT -BY CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IF PE DOENT CHANGE THEN KE DOESNT EITHER ENERGY CONSERVATION AND SATELLITE MOTION ELLIPTICAL ORBIT -BOTH SPEED AND DISTANCE VARY -PE IS GREATEST WHEN SATELLITE IS FAR AWAY, LEAST WHEN IT'S CLOSEST -KE WILL BE LEAST WHEN PE IS MOST, AND MOST WHEN PE IS LEAST -EVERY POINT IN THE ORBIT THE SUM OF PE AND KE ARE THE SAME -AT ALL POINTS ALONG THE ORBIT (EXCEPT THE APOGEE AND PERIGEE) A COMPONENT OF GRAVITATIONAL FORCE PARALLEL TO THE DIRECTION OF MOTION THE SATELLITE APOGEE DEFINITION SATELLITE IS FARTHEST AWAY FROM MAIN MASS PERIGEE WHEN SATELLITE IS CLOSEST TO CENTER MASS ENERGY CONSERVATION AND SATELLITE MOTION EXPLANATION WHEN THE SATELLITE GAINS ALTITUDE AND MOVES AGAINST ITS COMPONENT, ITS KE SPEED DECREASE ONCE PAST THE APOGEE THE SATELLITE MOVES IN THE SAME DIRECTION AS THE COMPONENT, THE SPEED AND KE INCREASE ESCAPE SPEED DEFINITION CRITICAL STARTING SPEED THAT PERMITS A PROJECTILE TO OUTRUN GRAVITY AND TO ESCAPE EARTH ESCAPE VELOCITY DEFINITION ESCAPE SPEED PLUS DIRECTION ESCAPE SPEED MEASUREMENT 11.2 km/sec ESCAPE SPEED ENERGY 62 MILLION JOULES PER KILOGRAM OF LOAD