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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the electrical charge of a electrons and protons
1.6 x 10^-19
What happens to an electron if there is change in the voltage
it will move
What is the postive region of an electric circuit
anode
What is the negative region of an electric circut
cathode
Are electrons repelled from the cathod and attracted to the anode
yes
What is the cause of movement of electrons in a complete circuit
An y voltage source in a complete circuit will therefore result in a flow of electrons
in the circuit.
What is current
the flow of electrons through a circuit
What is electric current measured in
amperes
What is an atom made up of
protons, neutrons and electrons
Where are protons and neutrons found
nucleus
Is an isolated neutron stable
no, half life of 11 minutes
What is the units of power
watt
What is the formula for power
current x volts
Explain what a electron volt is
One electron volt (eV) is the kinetic energy gained whe n a single electron is acceler-ated between two plates that differ in potential by 1 V. Before leaving the negatively charged
plate, the electron has a potential energy of 1 eV.
What is the atomic number
Th e atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom and is
unique for each element.
What is the mass number
-Th e mass number (A) is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
What is the notation of a element in the periodic table
Mass number is A

Atomic number is Z
What is Z in the periodic table anotation
Z = protons.
How much do protons and neutrons weigh
1.6 x 10 ^− 2 7 kg. (1 amu)
What is avogadro number
On e gram-mole of a substance contains 6 x 10^23 atoms
What is a nucleon
a fancy way of saying protons and neutrons
According to the bohr model how do electrons surround the nucleus
electrons surround the nucleus in shells (e.g., K-shell and L-shell) as shown for tungsten
How are the shells containing electrons named
Eac h shell is assigned a principal quantum number (n), beginning with one for the
K-shell, two for the L-shell, and so on.
How many electrons can each K shell contain
-Th e number of electrons each shell can contain is 2n^2 for example the K-shell in tungsten (n = 1) has 2 electrons, the L-shell (n = 2) has 8 electrons,
the M-shell (n = 3) has 18 electrons, and so on.
What determines the chemical properties of a atom
Th e number of electrons in the outer shell (valence electrons) determines the
chemical properties of the atom
What does the bohr model of an atom look like
What causes an atom to stay together
Atomi c electrons are held in place by the electrostatic pull of the positively
charged nucleus.
What is electron binding energy
Th e work that is required to remove an electron from an atom is called the electron
binding energy
What causes the electron binding energy to decrease
The electron binding energy decreases rapidly with electron distance from the
nucleus.
What is the binding energy of the inner shell compared to the outer shell
Th e binding energy of outer-shell electrons is small and equal to approximately
several electron volts. Th e binding energy of inner-shell electrons is large, that is, thousands of electron volts (keV).
What happens to the K shell (inner shell) binding energy as the atomic energy increases
it increases
In order for a energetic particle to knock out an inner shell electron what must occur
Energetic particles can knock out inner-shell electrons only if their energy is greater
than the electron binding energy.
What happens if there is a vacancy in the K shell (if a high energy particle knocked it out)
-A vacancy in the K-shell will be filled by an electron from a higher shell. Electrons moving from an outer shell to an inner shell may emit excess energy as ectromagnetic radiation.
What is electromagnetic radiation
the transport of energy through space
Define wavelength, amplitude, frequency and period
Wavelength (λ) is the distance between successive crests of waves.
-Amplitude is the intensity defined by the height of the wave.
-Frequency (f ) is the number of wave oscillations per unit of time expressed in cy-cles per second, or in hertz (Hz).
-Th e period is the time required for one wavelength to pass (1/ f ) .
What are the units of frequency
hertz
What is the speed of electromagnetic radiation in a vacuum
light 3 x 10^8
What is the speed of an xray in a vacuum
the speed of light
What is the formula for the speed of an x-ray
V= f x wavelength
Is radiation a type of electromagnetic radiation
yes
Can electromagnetic radiation represents a transverse wave, in which the electric and
magnetic fields oscillate perpendicular to the direction of the wave motion.
yes
What does the electomagnetic spectra look like
Do radiowaves have short or long wavelength
long wavelengths
Can a photon be thought of as a particle
As a waver or Electromagnetic radiation can be considered quantized, meaning that it exists in discrete quantities of energy called photons
Can a photon act as a wave or a particle
yes
What is photon energy directly proportional too
frequency
If the frequency is high will a photon have more energy
yes
What is the wavelength of an x ray
in the magnetude 10^-10meters
What is the formula for a photons energy
Photon energy is E = h x f = h x ( c/ λ ) = 12.4/λ, where E is in keV, h is Planck's
constant, and λ is the wavelength in angstroms.
Energy of a photon can be written as E = h x f = h x ( c/ λ ) = 12.4/λ,
yes
What is the units of the energy of a photon
keV
What are 2 names of photon
B y convention, photons are called x-rays if produced by electron interactions, and
gamma rays if produced in nuclear processes.
What is a photon called if it is produced by electron interaction
x-ray
What is a photon called if it is produced by a nuclear process
gamma ray
What happens to the X-ray beam intensity as it moves away from the tube
it decreases bc of divergence of the X-ray beam
How do you determine how much the X-ray beam has decreased as it moves away from the tube
Th e decrease in intensity is proportional to the square of the distance from the
source and is an expression of energy conservation.
How much does the X-ray beam intensity decrease at 2 meters compared to 10meters
Fo r example, doubling the distance from the x-ray source decreases the x-ray
beam intensity by a factor of 4; increasing the distance by a factor of 10 decreases
the beam intensity by a factor of 100.
What is electric current
Electric current is the rate of charge flow past a given point in an electric circuit, measured in Coulombs/second which is named Amperes